Test Catalog

Test Id : PTP

Porphyrins, Total, Plasma

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring treatment of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Plasma specimens from patients with active porphyria cutanea tarda, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, and erythropoietic protoporphyria may exhibit increased plasma porphyrin levels. However, a definitive diagnosis cannot be made by plasma analysis alone.

Highlights

Plasma porphyrins are most appropriate for monitoring patients being treated for porphyria cutanea tarda.

 

Analysis of plasma porphyrins is suitable for individuals with bullous dermatosis who are in chronic renal failure and unable to provide a urine specimen.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
PFP Porphyrins, Fractionation, P No No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total porphyrins are above 1.0 mcg/dL, then porphyrin fractionation will be performed at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Porphyria (Acute) Testing Algorithm

-Porphyria (Cutaneous) Testing Algorithm

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

PTP: Extraction and Scanning Spectrofluorometry

PFP: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Porphyrins, Total, P

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP)

Coproporphyrin

Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP)

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)

Protoporphyrin

Uroporphyrin

Variegate Porphyria

X-linked Dominant Protoporphyria (XLDPP or XDP)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total porphyrins are above 1.0 mcg/dL, then porphyrin fractionation will be performed at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Porphyria (Acute) Testing Algorithm

-Porphyria (Cutaneous) Testing Algorithm

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Plasma

Shipping Instructions

Necessary Information

Include a list of medications the patient is currently taking.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: Patient should abstain from alcohol for at least 24 hours prior to specimen collection.

Supplies: Amber Frosted Tube, 5 mL (T192)

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Green top (heparin)

Acceptable: Lavender top (EDTA)

Submission Container/Tube: Amber vial

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Centrifuge specimen and aliquot plasma into amber vial.

2. Send plasma frozen.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Frozen (preferred) 14 days LIGHT PROTECTED

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring treatment of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Plasma specimens from patients with active porphyria cutanea tarda, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, and erythropoietic protoporphyria may exhibit increased plasma porphyrin levels. However, a definitive diagnosis cannot be made by plasma analysis alone.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total porphyrins are above 1.0 mcg/dL, then porphyrin fractionation will be performed at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Porphyria (Acute) Testing Algorithm

-Porphyria (Cutaneous) Testing Algorithm

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The porphyrias are a group of inherited disorders resulting from enzyme defects in the heme biosynthetic pathway. These enzyme defects cause various porphyrins and their precursors to accumulate in different specimen types. The detection and differentiation of the porphyrias is through evaluation of the patterns of porphyrin accumulation observed in erythrocytes and plasma and of the heme precursors excreted in urine and feces.

 

The porphyrias are typically classified as erythropoietic or hepatic based upon the primary site of the enzyme defect. In addition, hepatic porphyrias can be further classified as chronic or acute, based on their clinical presentation.

 

The primary acute hepatic porphyrias, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and variegate porphyria (VP), are associated with neurovisceral symptoms that typically onset during puberty or later. Common symptoms include severe abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric symptoms. A broad range of medications (including barbiturates and sulfa drugs), alcohol, infection, starvation, heavy metals, and hormonal changes may precipitate crises. Photosensitivity is not associated with AIP, but may occur in HCP and VP.

 

Cutaneous photosensitivity is associated with the chronic hepatic porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), and the erythropoietic porphyrias including erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP), and congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). Although genetic in nature, environmental factors may exacerbate symptoms, significantly impacting the severity and course of disease.

 

CEP is an erythropoietic porphyria caused by uroporphyrinogen III synthase deficiency. Symptoms typically present in early infancy with red-brown staining of diapers, severe cutaneous photosensitivity with fluid-filled bullae and vesicles. Other common symptoms may include thickening of the skin, hypo- and hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, cutaneous scarring, and deformities of the fingers, eyelids, lips, nose, and ears. A few milder adult-onset cases have been documented as well as cases that are secondary to myeloid malignancies.

 

PCT is the most common form of porphyria and can be either sporadic (acquired) or inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The most prominent clinical characteristics are cutaneous photosensitivity and scarring on sun-exposed surfaces. Patients experience chronic blistering lesions; fluid filled vesicles that rupture easily become crusted and heal slowly, which result from mild trauma to sun-exposed areas. Secondary infections can cause areas of hypo- or hyperpigmentation or sclerodermatous changes and alopecia following repeated skin damage. Liver disease is common as evidenced by abnormal liver function tests, and 30% to 40% of patients with PCT develop cirrhosis. In addition, there is an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

 

Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) occurs when an individual inherits a PCT-causing genetic variant from both parents. Patients exhibit a similar clinical presentation to what is seen in CEP.

 

Clinical presentation of EPP and XLDPP is identical with onset of symptoms typically occurring in childhood. Cutaneous photosensitivity in sun-exposed areas of the skin generally worsens in the spring and summer months. Common symptoms may include itching, edema, erythema, stinging or burning sensations, and occasionally scarring of the skin in sun-exposed areas.

 

Plasma porphyrins are most appropriate for monitoring treatment of PCT. Although analysis in plasma is not recommended for diagnosis, increases in plasma porphyrin concentrations are observed in the cutaneous porphyrias and may be elevated during acute episodes of AIP, VP, and HCP. In addition, persons in chronic renal failure who develop bullous dermatosis similar to that associated with PCT may have increased plasma porphyrins.

 

The workup of patients with a suspected porphyria is most effective when following a stepwise approach.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions or call 800-533-1710 to discuss testing strategies:

-Porphyria (Acute) Testing Algorithm

-Porphyria (Cutaneous) Testing Algorithm

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =1.0 mcg/dL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Abnormal results are reported with a detailed interpretation that may include an overview of the results and their significance, a correlation to available clinical information provided with the specimen, differential diagnosis, recommendations for additional testing when indicated and available, and a phone number to reach one of the laboratory directors in case the referring physician has additional questions.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Plasma porphyrins, especially protoporphyrin, are extremely sensitive to light and may degrade to normal levels if not handled properly.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Tortorelli S, Kloke K, Raymond K: Chapter 15: Disorders of porphyrin metabolism. In: Dietzen DJ, Bennett MJ, Wong EDD, eds. Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Pediatric Disease. 4th ed. AACC Press; 2010:307-324

2. Anderson KE, Sassa S, Bishop DF, Desnick RJ: Disorders of heme biosynthesis: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and the porphyrias. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed November 23, 2020. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225540906

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The plasma porphyrins profile is performed as a 2-step analysis. First, the total plasma porphyrins concentration is determined by extracting the porphyrins from plasma with a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetic acid. The porphyrins are then back extracted into dilute hydrochloric acid. Total porphyrins are quantified on this extract via scanning spectrofluorometry. If the total plasma porphyrin concentration is elevated, the extract is submitted for HPLC analysis, whereby the individual porphyrin analytes are separated by differential partitioning between a stationary aliphatic surface and a moving aqueous buffer solution. As the porphyrins emerge separately from the column, the quantity of each is monitored with a fluorescence detector.(Ford RE, Ou C, Ellefson RD: Liquid chromatographic analysis for urinary porphyrins. Clin Chem 1981;27:397-401)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84311-Porphyrins, total

82542-Porphyrins, fractionation (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PTP Porphyrins, Total, P 2815-9
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
8731 Porphyrins, Total, P 2815-9
34252 Reviewed By 18771-6
33869 Interpretation 59462-2

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports