Test Catalog

Test Id : VMA

Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening children for catecholamine-secreting tumors with a 24-hour urine collection when requesting testing for only vanillylmandelic acid

 

Supporting a diagnosis of neuroblastoma

 

Monitoring patients with a treated neuroblastoma

Highlights

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and other catecholamine metabolites such as homovanillic acid (HVA) measurement in urine are used for screening children for catecholamine-secreting tumors such as neuroblastoma and other neural crest tumors and monitoring those who have had treatment for these tumors.

 

More than 90% of individuals with neuroblastoma have elevated VMA and/or HVA.

 

VMA is not the analyte of choice for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, which is better detected by testing for metanephrines.

 

Treatment with L-dopa can impact test results and should be discontinued 24 hours prior to collection. Bactrim can impact test results and should be noted at time of collection.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hr, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Vanillylmandelic Acid

3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxymandelic Acid

4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxymandelic Acid

VMA

Neuroblastoma Profile

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Ordering Guidance

In the past, this test has been used to screen for pheochromocytoma. However, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is not the analyte of choice to rule out a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Recommended tests for that purpose include:

-PMET / Metanephrines, Fractionated, Free, Plasma

-METAF / Metanephrines, Fractionated, 24 Hour, Urine

-CATU / Catecholamine Fractionation, Free, 24 Hour, Urine

Necessary Information

1. Patients age is required.

2. Collection duration and urine volume are required.

3. All patients receiving L-dopa should be identified to the laboratory when this test is ordered.

4. Bactrim may interfere with detection of the analyte. All patients taking Bactrim should be identified to the laboratory when this test is ordered.

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
TM41 Collection Duration
VL39 Urine Volume

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: Administration of L-dopa may falsely-increase vanillylmandelic acid results; it should be discontinued 24 hours prior to and during collection of specimen.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Specimen Volume: 5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a 24-hour urine specimen.

2. Add 25 mL of 50% acetic acid as preservative at the start of collection. If specimen is refrigerated during collection, preservative may be added up to 12 hours after collection. Use 15 mL of 50% acetic acid for children <5 years old. This preservative is intended to achieve a pH of between approximately 1 and 5. If necessary, adjust urine pH to 1 to 5 with 50% acetic or hydrochloric acid.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

No

Refrigerate

No

Frozen

No

50% Acetic Acid

Preferred

Boric Acid

OK

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

OK

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

*If boric acid is used, note on specimen container. Also, verify that pH is in desired range (pH=1-5). If pH is outside of desired range, adjust pH with a stronger acid (acetic acid is preferred but other acids listed above could be used if available) in a dropwise fashion to bring pH into desired range.

 

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Frozen 180 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening children for catecholamine-secreting tumors with a 24-hour urine collection when requesting testing for only vanillylmandelic acid

 

Supporting a diagnosis of neuroblastoma

 

Monitoring patients with a treated neuroblastoma

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and other catecholamine metabolites (homovanillic acid: HVA and dopamine) are typically elevated in patients with catecholamine-secreting tumors (eg, neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, and other neural crest tumors). VMA and HVA levels may also be useful in monitoring patients who have been treated as a result of 1 of the above-mentioned tumors.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<1 year: <25.0 mg/g creatinine

1 year: <22.5 mg/g creatinine

2-4 years: <16.0 mg/g creatinine

5-9 years: <12.0 mg/g creatinine

10-14 years: <8.0 mg/g creatinine

> or =15 years (adults): <8.0 mg/24 hours

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Vanillylmandelic acid and/or homovanillic acid concentrations are elevated in most patients (more than 90%) with neuroblastoma; both tests should be performed. A positive test could be due to a genetic or nongenetic condition. Additional confirmatory testing is required.

 

A normal result does not exclude the presence of a catecholamine-secreting tumor.

 

Elevated values are suggestive of a pheochromocytoma, but they are not diagnostic.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Values are more commonly elevated during a hypertensive episode.

 

Values may be normal in some individuals with pheochromocytoma.

 

All patients taking Bactrim should be identified to the laboratory when VMA and HVA tests are ordered due to potential interference.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Hyland K: Disorders of neurotransmitter metabolism. In: Blau N, Duran M, Blaskovics ME, Gibson KM, eds. Physician's Guide to the Laboratory Diagnosis of Metabolic Diseases. Springer; 2003:107-122. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-55878-8_8

2. Gitlow SE, Bertrani LM, Rausen A, Gribetz D, Dziedzic SW: Diagnosis of neuroblastoma by qualitative and quantitative determination of catecholamine metabolites in urine. Cancer. 1970 Jun;25(6):1377-1383

3. Strenger V, Kerbl R, Dornbusch HJ, et al: Diagnostic and prognostic impact of urinary catecholamines in neuroblastoma patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 May;48(5):504-509

4. Barco S, Gennai I, Reggiardo G, et al: Urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acid in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma: report from the Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma. Clin Biochem. 2014 Jun;47(9):848-852

5. Matthay KK, Maris JM, Schleiermacher G, et al: Neuroblastoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016 Nov 10;2:16078. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2016.78

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is measured by solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a 1-mL aliquot of urine. A known amount of stable-isotope labeled VMA internal standard (IS) is added to each urine specimen prior to SPE. VMA and IS are eluted from the SPE column with methanol. The methanol is evaporated and the VMA and IS are redissolved in liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) mobile phase. A portion of this prepared extract is injected onto a LC column that separates VMA and IS from the bulk of any remaining specimen matrix. The VMA and IS are measured by tandem-mass spectrometry using the selected reaction monitoring mode. VMA is quantified using the ratio to IS versus urine calibrators.(Magera MJ, Thompson AL, Stoor AL, et al: Determination of vanillylmandelic acid in urine by stable isotope dilution and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2003;49:825-826; Eisenhofer G, Grebe S, Cheung NV: Monoamine-producing tumors. In Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 63)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84585

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VMA Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hr, U 43099-1
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
3580 Vanillylmandelic Acid, Adult (>14y) 3122-9
3581 Vanillylmandelic Acid, Child (<15y) 30571-4
TM41 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL39 Urine Volume 3167-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports