Test Catalog

Test Id : CHOU

Carbohydrate, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for conditions associated with increased excretion of fructose, galactose, and xylose

 

This test is not recommended as a follow up test for abnormal newborn screening for galactosemia.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
GALU Galactose, QN, U Yes No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Testing begins with carbohydrate analysis. If qualitative results are normal or abnormal but not indicative of galactose, testing is complete.

 

If qualitative results indicate the presence of galactose, then quantitative testing for galactose will be performed at an additional charge.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), Qualitative

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Carbohydrate, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Carbohydrate, Urine

Fructose

Reducing Substance

Galactose

Xylose

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Testing begins with carbohydrate analysis. If qualitative results are normal or abnormal but not indicative of galactose, testing is complete.

 

If qualitative results indicate the presence of galactose, then quantitative testing for galactose will be performed at an additional charge.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Ordering Guidance

This test is not appropriate for evaluation of an abnormal newborn screen for galactosemia. For those cases, order GCT / Galactosemia Reflex, Blood and consider GAL1P / Galactose-1-Phosphate, Erythrocytes and GATOL / Galactitol, Quantitative, Urine.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube

Specimen Volume: 5 mL

Collection Instructions: Collect an early-morning (preferred) random urine specimen.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Biochemical Genetics Patient Information (T602) in Special Instructions.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Frozen (preferred) 21 days
Refrigerated 21 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for conditions associated with increased excretion of fructose, galactose, and xylose

 

This test is not recommended as a follow up test for abnormal newborn screening for galactosemia.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Testing begins with carbohydrate analysis. If qualitative results are normal or abnormal but not indicative of galactose, testing is complete.

 

If qualitative results indicate the presence of galactose, then quantitative testing for galactose will be performed at an additional charge.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Carbohydrates are a group of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides of endogenous and exogenous sources. Their presence frequently reflects dietary consumption but can indicate specific pathology if either a particular saccharide or a particular excretory pattern is present. Most saccharides (except glucose) have low renal thresholds and are readily excreted in the urine.

 

In addition to several other saccharide species, chromatography of urinary saccharides identifies galactose and fructose and is, therefore, useful to screen for inborn errors of galactose and fructose metabolism. Xylose may also be detected in individuals with hereditary pentosuria, a benign trait with high frequency among individuals with Ashkenazi Jewish descent.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Negative

If positive, carbohydrate is identified.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive comment is provided.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A number of compounds interfere with the assay and microbial contamination can lead to uninterpretable patterns of urinary saccharides. Retesting is recommended in these cases.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R, Van den Berghe G: Disorders of fructose metabolism. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet A, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed January 09, 2020. Available at http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225080452

2. OMIM. #260800 Pentosuria; PNTSU. Johns Hopkins University; 1986. Updated July 9, 2016. Accessed April 23, 2021. Available at https://omim.org/entry/260800

3. Gaughan S, Ayres L, Baker P II: Hereditary fructose intolerance. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle;2015. Updated February 18, 2021. Accessed April 23, 2021. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK333439

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The urine is chromatographed on a silica gel thin-layer plate. The sugars are located with naphthoresorcinol spray reagent and are identified by visual comparison with a sugar standard chromatographed on the same plate. If galactose is found, it is quantitated by an enzymatic method.(Prinz W, Meldrum W, Wilkinson L: A simple and rapid thin-layer chromatographic method for the identification of urinary carbohydrates. Clin Chim Acta. 1978;82:229-232; Cowan T, Pasquali M: Laboratory Investigations of Inborn Errors of Metabolism. In: Sarafoglou K, Hoffman GF, Roth KS, eds. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. 2nd ed. Elsevier; 2017:1139-1158)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

8 to 15 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84377-Carbohydrate

82760-Galactose (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CHOU Carbohydrate, U 16550-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
9255 Carbohydrate, U 16550-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports

Test Update Resources

Change Type Effective Date
File Definition - Result ID 2021-04-27
File Definition - Result ID 2021-04-27