Test Catalog

Test Id : CD20B

CD20 on B Cells, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of CD19 deficiency in patients with a suspected CD19 deficiency (humoral immunodeficiency)

 

Confirming complete absence of B cells in suspected primary humoral immunodeficiencies using both CD19 and CD20 markers

 

Assessing therapeutic B-cell depletion quantitatively (absolute counts of cells/mcL) in any clinical context, including malignancies, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and membranous glomerulonephritis among others, and treatment or prevention of acute humoral rejection in positive crossmatch renal transplant recipients

 

This test is not useful for assessing whether B cells express the target molecule (CD20) in the context of initiating therapeutic monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy (rituximab, ofatumumab, and tositumomab) for any of the hematological malignancies, or in other clinical contexts, such as autoimmunity.

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Flow Cytometry

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

CD20, B-Cells

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole Blood EDTA

Ordering Guidance

This is the correct test to order if specifically confirming the absence of B cells due to suspected primary humoral or combined immunodeficiency or evaluating for CD19 deficiency.

 

If desirous of only quantitatively measuring total CD19 or CD20+ B cells, order TBBS / Quantitative Lymphocyte Subsets: T, B, and Natural Killer (NK) Cells, Blood or CD20B / CD20 on B Cells, Blood, respectively. Do not order the detailed analysis of B cell subsets for this purpose.

 

This test should not be ordered for a comprehensive evaluation of peripheral B-cell subsets. For evaluation of memory B-cell subsets, transitional B cells, mature and immature B cells, order IABCS / B-Cell Phenotyping Profile for Immunodeficiency and Immune Competence Assessment, Blood.

 

This test should not be used for evaluating presence of CD20 on malignant or nonmalignant B cells. The following test should be used instead, CEE20 / CD20 Cell Expression Evaluation, Varies.

Shipping Instructions

Collect and package specimens as close to shipping time as possible. It is recommended that specimens arrive within 24 hours of collection.

Necessary Information

Date of collection is required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions: Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Additional Information:

1. Secondary aliquot tubes will be rejected.

2. Testing will be canceled if the specimen is not received ambient.

3. For serial monitoring, it is recommended that specimens are collected at the same time of day.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Secondary aliquot tube Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole Blood EDTA Ambient (preferred) 4 days PURPLE OR PINK TOP/EDTA

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of CD19 deficiency in patients with a suspected CD19 deficiency (humoral immunodeficiency)

 

Confirming complete absence of B cells in suspected primary humoral immunodeficiencies using both CD19 and CD20 markers

 

Assessing therapeutic B-cell depletion quantitatively (absolute counts of cells/mcL) in any clinical context, including malignancies, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and membranous glomerulonephritis among others, and treatment or prevention of acute humoral rejection in positive crossmatch renal transplant recipients

 

This test is not useful for assessing whether B cells express the target molecule (CD20) in the context of initiating therapeutic monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy (rituximab, ofatumumab, and tositumomab) for any of the hematological malignancies, or in other clinical contexts, such as autoimmunity.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

CD20 (cluster of differentiate 20) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of B cells, starting at the pre-B cell stage and on mature B cells in the bone marrow and in the periphery. CD20 is not expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, pro-B cells, or normal plasma cells.(1) Plasmablasts and stimulated plasma cells may express CD20.(2) CD20 is generally coexpressed on B cells with CD19, another B-cell differentiation marker. CD20 appears to play a role in B-cell development, differentiation, B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, and cell-cycle initiation events.(3) CD20 is not shed from the surface of B cells and does not internalize on binding with anti-CD20 antibody, nor is it typically present as a soluble free antigen in circulation.(3) Certain primary humoral immunodeficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia, are characterized by a complete absence or profound reduction of peripheral B cells, expressing both CD20 and CD19 (another B-cell differentiation marker).

 

Variants in the CD19 gene have been shown to be associated with a primary humoral immunodeficiency, sometimes classified as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).(4) This defect accounts for less than 1% to 2% of CVID patients and appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive defect.(4) Since these patients have normal numbers of B cells with absent CD19 expression on the cell surface (4), CD20 can be used as a marker to help identify these patients. Genetic CD20 deficiency (autosomal recessive) is also associated with a primary humoral immunodeficiency. In this disease, B cells can be identified by CD19 expression.(5)

 

A contrasting situation exists for patients receiving rituximab, ofatumumab, and other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat certain cancers, autoimmune diseases, or for B-cell depletion to prevent humoral rejection in positive crossmatch kidney transplantation. These agents block available CD20-binding sites and, therefore, the antibody used for this flow cytometric assay cannot recognize the CD20 molecule on B cells. The concomitant use of the CD19 marker provides information on the extent of B-cell depletion when using this particular treatment strategy.

 

The absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets are known to be influenced by a variety of biological factors, including hormones, the environment, and temperature. The studies on diurnal (circadian) variation in lymphocyte counts have demonstrated progressive increase in CD4 T-cell count throughout the day, while CD8 T cells and CD19+ B cells increase between 8:30 a.m. and noon, with no change between noon and afternoon. Natural killer cell counts, on the other hand, are constant throughout the day.(6) Circadian variations in circulating T-cell counts have been shown to be negatively correlated with plasma cortisol concentration.(7-9) In fact, cortisol and catecholamine concentrations control distribution and, therefore, numbers of naive versus effector CD4 and CD8 T cells.(7) It is generally accepted that lower CD4 T-cell counts are seen in the morning compared with the evening(10), and during summer compared to winter.(11) These data, therefore, indicate that timing and consistency in timing of blood collection is critical when serially monitoring patients for lymphocyte subsets.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

%CD19 B CELLS

> or =19 years: 4.6-22.1%

 

CD19 ABSOLUTE

> or =19 years: 56.6-417.4 cells/mcL

 

%CD20 B CELLS

> or =19 years: 5.0-22.3%

 

CD20 ABSOLUTE

> or =19 years: 74.4-441.1 cells/mcL

 

CD45 ABSOLUTE

18-55 years: 0.99-3.15 thou/mcL

>55 years: 1.00-3.33 thou/mcL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

The presence of CD20+ B cells with corresponding absence of CD19 staining in individuals not receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment or with clinical features of variable primary humoral immunodeficiency may suggest an underlying CD19 deficiency, which should be further evaluated.

 

Absence of both CD20 and CD19 markers on B cells in blood from individuals not on anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment is consistent with complete mature and immature peripheral B-cell depletion, which may be due to an underlying primary immunodeficiency.

 

Patients receiving B-cell depleting therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies can show unusual populations of B cells on reconstitution that express either CD19 or CD20 due to a phenomenon known as trogocytosis.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Timing and consistency in timing of blood collection is critical when serially monitoring patients for lymphocyte subsets. See Clinical Information.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Nadler LM, Ritz J, Hardy R, et al: A unique cell-surface antigen identifying lymphoid malignancies of B-cell origin. J Clin Invest. 1981;67:134

2. Robillard N, Avet-Loiseau H, Garand R, et al: CD20 is associated with a small mature plasma cell morphology and t(11;14) in multiple myeloma. Blood. 2003;102(3):1070-1071

3. Pescovitz MD: Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody: history and mechanism of action. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:859-866

4. van Zelm MC, Reisli I, van der Burg M, et al: An antibody-deficiency syndrome due to mutations in the CD19 gene. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1901-1912

5. Kuijpers TW, Bende RJ, Baars PA, et al. CD20 deficiency in humans results in impaired T cell-independent antibody responses. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan;120(1):214-222. doi:10.1172/JCI40231

6.Carmichael KF, Abayomi A: Analysis of diurnal variation of lymphocyte subsets in healthy subjects and its implication in HIV monitoring and treatment. 15th International Conference on AIDS, Bangkok, Thailand, 2004, Abstract B11052

7. Dimitrov S, Benedict C, Heutling D, et al: Cortisol and epinephrine control opposing circadian rhythms in T-cell subsets. Blood. 2009 May 21;113(21):5134-5143

8. Dimitrov S, Lange T, Nohroudi K, Born J: Number and function of circulating antigen presenting cells regulated by sleep. Sleep. 2007;30:401-411

9. Kronfol Z, Nair M, Zhang Q, et al: Circadian immune measures in healthy volunteers: relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones and sympathetic neurotransmitters. Psychosom Med. 1997;59:42-50

10. Malone JL, Simms TE, Gray GC, et al: Sources of variability in repeated T-helper lymphocyte counts from HIV 1-infected patients: total lymphocyte count fluctuations and diurnal cycle are important. J AIDS. 1990;3:144-151

11. Paglieroni TG, Holland PV: Circannual variation in lymphocyte subsets, revisited. Transfusion. 1994;34:512-516

12. Engel ER, Walter JE. Rituximab and eculizumab when treating nonmalignant hematologic disorders: infection risk, immunization recommendations, and antimicrobial prophylaxis needs. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2020 Dec 4;2020(1):312-318. doi:10.1182/hematology.2020000171

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This test is performed using flow cytometry and is a single-tube, whole-blood assay incorporating CD45, CD19, and CD20 antibodies. After staining with specific antibodies, the red blood cells are lysed, and the sample is analyzed by flow cytometry on a Becton Dickinson (BD) fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) Canto flow cytometer. Absolute counts are obtained using BD Trucount (BD BioSciences) tubes. Both percent and absolute count will be reported for CD19 and CD20+ B cells. An absolute count will be reported for CD45.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

4 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed using an analyte specific reagent. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86355

86356

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CD20B CD20, B-Cells In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
29579 %CD19 B-Cells 8117-4
29581 CD19 Absolute 8116-6
29580 %CD20 B-Cells 8119-0
29582 CD20 Absolute 9558-8
89584 CD45 Absolute 27071-0
29583 Comment 48767-8

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports