Test Catalog

Test Id : GGT

Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing and monitoring hepatobiliary disease, it is currently the most sensitive enzymatic indicator of liver disease

 

Ascertaining whether observed elevations of alkaline phosphatase are due to skeletal disease (normal gamma-glutamyltransferase: GGT) or reflect the presence of hepatobiliary disease (elevated GGT)

 

A screening test for occult alcoholism

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Photometric Rate

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT), S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP)

GGT (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase)

GGTP (Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase)

Transpeptidase, Gamma-Glutamyl

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Necessary Information

Patient's age and sex are required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Aliquot tube

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot within 2 hours of collection.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.25 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 365 days
Ambient 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing and monitoring hepatobiliary disease, it is currently the most sensitive enzymatic indicator of liver disease

 

Ascertaining whether observed elevations of alkaline phosphatase are due to skeletal disease (normal gamma-glutamyltransferase: GGT) or reflect the presence of hepatobiliary disease (elevated GGT)

 

A screening test for occult alcoholism

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is primarily present in kidney, liver, and pancreatic cells. Small amounts are present in other tissues. Even though renal tissue has the highest level of GGT, the enzyme present in the serum appears to originate primarily from the hepatobiliary system, and GGT activity is elevated in any and all forms of liver disease. It is highest in cases of intra- or posthepatic biliary obstruction, reaching levels some 5 to 30 times normal. GGT is more sensitive than alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leucine aminopeptidase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine aminotransferase in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, and cholecystitis; its rise occurs earlier than with these other enzymes and persists longer. Only modest elevations (2-5 times normal) occur in infectious hepatitis, and in this condition, GGT determinations are less useful diagnostically than are measurements of the transaminases. High elevations of GGT are also observed in patients with either primary or secondary (metastatic) neoplasms. Elevated levels of GGT are noted not only in the sera of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis but also in the majority of sera from persons who are heavy drinkers. Studies have emphasized the value of serum GGT levels in detecting alcohol-induced liver disease. Elevated serum values are also seen in patients receiving drugs such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, and this is thought to reflect induction of new enzyme activity.

 

Normal values are observed in various muscle diseases and in renal failure. Normal values are also seen in cases of skeletal disease, children older than 1 year, and in healthy pregnant women-conditions in which ALP is elevated.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Males

0-11 months: <178 U/L

12 months-6 years: <21 U/L

7-12 years: <24 U/L

13-17 years: <43 U/L

> or =18 years: 8-61 U/L

 

Females

0-11 months: <178 U/L

12 months- 6 years: <21 U/L

7-12 years: <24 U/L

13-17 years: <26 U/L

> or =18 years: 5-36 U/L

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An elevation of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is seen in any and all forms of liver disease, although the highest elevations are seen in intra- or posthepatic biliary obstruction. Elevated values can also indicate alcoholic cirrhosis or individuals who are heavy drinkers.

 

The finding of increased GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is consistent with hepatobiliary disease.

 

The finding of normal GGT activity and increased ALP activity is consistent with skeletal disease.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity is inducible by drugs such as phenytoin and phenobarbital and, therefore, elevations should not be considered indicative of liver disease until drug use is ruled out. Elevations are also seen after ingestion of alcoholic beverages.

 

In very rare cases, gammopathy, in particular, type IgM (Waldenstrom macroglobinemia) may cause unreliable results.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1994

2. Heiduk M, Page I, Kliem C, et al: Pediatric reference intervals determined in ambulatory and hospitalized children and juveniles. Clin Chim Acta 2009:406:156-161

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This is an enzyme colorimetric method (rate method) where gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) transfers the gamma-glutamyl group of the substrate (L-gamma-glutamyl-3-carboxy-4-nitroanilide) to glycylglycine. The amount of 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoate liberated is proportional to the GGT activity and can be determined photometrically.(Package insert: Roche Diagnostics Cobas 6000 GGT-2 reagent, Indianapolis, IN, 46256; 2017-01, V 10.0)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82977

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports