Test Catalog

Test Id : PYR

Pyruvic Acid, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for possible disorders of mitochondrial metabolism, when used in conjunction with blood lactate collected at the same time, to determine the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

The lactate:pyruvate (L:P) ratio is considered a helpful (not diagnostic) tool in the evaluation of patients with possible disorders of mitochondrial metabolism, especially in patients with neurologic dysfunction and either elevated or normal blood lactate levels. Pyruvic acid levels alone have little clinical utility.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Spectrophotometry (SP)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Pyruvic Acid, B

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

ETC

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Defects

Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Disorders

PC

PDH (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency

PDHC (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex)

Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

Pyruvate Decarboxylase Deficiency

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) Deficiency

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDHC)

Pyruvate, Blood

Lactate to Pyruvate Ratio

L:P

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole blood

Additional Testing Requirements

This test does not calculate the lactate:pyruvate ratio. To obtain this information, both this test and LACS1 / Lactate, Plasma must be ordered. The ratio can be calculated from the results obtained from these tests. A separate specimen must be obtained for lactate testing, see LACS1 / Lactate, Plasma.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Call 800-533-1710 or 507-266-5700 to order special collection tube.

 

Patient Preparation: Fasting (at least 4 hours)

Supplies: Perchloric Acid-Pyruvate Tube (T012)

Container/Tube: Special collection tube containing 2.5 mL of 6% perchloric acid

Specimen Volume: Exactly 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Special collection tube must be prechilled prior to collection.

2. Draw enough blood directly into syringe to add exactly 1 mL of blood to the prechilled special collection tube.

3. Taking care to not spill any of the preservative, cautiously remove the cap from the tube.

4. Immediately transfer blood, once drawn, to the prechilled, special collection tube, recap, and shake vigorously to mix.

Additional Information:

1. Check expiration date before using. Supplied collection tube expires 14 months after preparation.

2. If perchloric acid (preservative) spills, obtain a new, prechilled tube.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

See Specimen Required

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole blood Refrigerated (preferred) 15 days PYRUVATE

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for possible disorders of mitochondrial metabolism, when used in conjunction with blood lactate collected at the same time, to determine the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

The lactate:pyruvate (L:P) ratio is considered a helpful (not diagnostic) tool in the evaluation of patients with possible disorders of mitochondrial metabolism, especially in patients with neurologic dysfunction and either elevated or normal blood lactate levels. Pyruvic acid levels alone have little clinical utility.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Pyruvic acid, an intermediate metabolite, plays an important role in linking carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. Though isolated elevated pyruvate is not diagnostic of any inborn error of metabolism, analysis with lactate may suggest an inborn error of metabolism as some present with lactic acidosis or a high lactate-to-pyruvate (L:P) ratio.

 

The L:P ratio is elevated in several, but not all, mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. Mitochondrial disorders vary widely in presentation and age of onset. Many mitochondrial disorders have neurologic and myopathic features and may involve multiple organ systems. Determination of lactate, pyruvate, and L:P ratio in cerebrospinal fluid is helpful in directing attention toward a possible mitochondrial disorder in cases with predominantly neurologic dysfunction and normal blood lactate levels, though further confirmatory testing will be required to establish a diagnosis.

 

A low L:P ratio is observed in inherited disorders of pyruvate metabolism including pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency. Clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency can range from fatal congenital lactic acidosis to relatively mild ataxia or neuropathy. The most common features in infants and children with PDHC deficiency are delayed development and hypotonia. Seizures and ataxia are also frequent features. Other manifestations can include congenital brain malformations, degenerative changes including Leigh disease, and facial dysmorphism.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

0.08-0.16 mmol/L

 

NIH Unit

0.7-1.4 mg/dL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An elevated lactate-to-pyruvate (L:P) ratio may indicate inherited disorders of the respiratory chain complex, tricarboxylic acid cycle disorders and pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. Respiratory chain defects usually result in L:P ratios above 20.

 

A low L:P ratio (disproportionately elevated pyruvic acid) may indicate an inherited disorder of pyruvate metabolism. Defects of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex result in L:P ratios below 10.

 

The L:P ratio is characteristically normal in other patients. An artifactually high ratio can be found if the patient is acutely ill.

 

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) L:P ratio may assist in evaluation of patients with neurologic dysfunction and normal blood L:P ratios. Blood and CSF specimens should be collected at the same time.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Correct specimen collection and handling is crucial to achieve reliable results.

 

Pyruvic acid levels alone have little clinical utility. Abnormal concentrations of pyruvic acid and lactate-to-pyruvate (L:P) ratios are not diagnostic for a particular disorder but must be interpreted in the context of the patient's clinical presentation and other laboratory studies. The determination of pyruvic acid is of diagnostic value when lactic acid is measured and the L:P ratio is established in the same specimen.

 

When comparing blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) L:P ratios, blood and CSF specimens should be collected at the same time.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Munnich A, Rotig A, Cormier-Daire V, Rustin P: Clinical presentation of Respiratory Chain Deficiency. In: Valle DL, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed November 30, 2021. Available at http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225086827

2. Robinson BH: Lactic acidemia: Disorders of pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In: Valle DL, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed November 30, 2021. Available at http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225087140

3. Shoffner JM: Oxidative phosphorylation diseases. In: Valle DL, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019 Accessed November 30, 2021. Available at http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225088339

4. Parikh S, Goldstein A, Koenig MK, et al: Diagnosis and management of mitochondrial disease: a consensus statement from the Mitochondrial Medicine Society. Genet Med. 2015;17(9):689-701. doi:10.1038/gim.2014.177

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Pyruvate, in the presence of excess nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hydrogen ions, and lactic dehydrogenase, is reduced to lactate. The reaction is stoichiometric; the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm is directly proportional to the concentration of pyruvate.(Fleischer WR, Forman DT, Huckabee WE, Antonis A, Young K: Enzymatic methods for lactic and pyruvic acids. In: MacDonald RP, ed. Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry. Vol 6. 1970:245-259; Huckabee WE: Relationships of pyruvate and lactate during anaerobic metabolism. I. Effects of infusion of pyruvate or glucose and of hyperventilation. J Clin Invest. 1958;37:244-254; Cowan T, Pasquali M: Laboratory investigations of inborn errors of metabolism. In: Sarafoglou K, Hoffman GF, Roth KS, eds. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2017:1139-1158)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday, Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

4 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

3 weeks

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84210

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PYR Pyruvic Acid, B 14121-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
8657 Pyruvic Acid, B 14121-8
7729 Pyruvic Acid, B 2905-8

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports