Test Catalog

Test Id : INHAB

Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors

 

Monitoring of patients with granulosa cell tumors and epithelial mucinous-type tumors of the ovary known to secrete inhibin A or overexpress inhibin B

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
INHA Inhibin A, Tumor Marker, S Yes Yes
INHB Inhibin B, S Yes Yes

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

INHA: Sequential 2-Step Immunoenzymatic Assay

INHB: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, S

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 90 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors

 

Monitoring of patients with granulosa cell tumors and epithelial mucinous-type tumors of the ovary known to secrete inhibin A or overexpress inhibin B

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Inhibins are heterodimeric protein hormones secreted by granulosa cells of the ovary in the female and Sertoli cells of the testis in the male. They selectively suppress secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and have local paracrine actions in the gonads. The inhibins consist of a dimer of 2 homologous subunits, an alpha subunit and either a beta A or beta B subunit, to form inhibin A and inhibin B, respectively.

 

In females, inhibin A is primarily produced by the dominant follicle and corpus luteum; whereas inhibin B is predominantly produced by small developing follicles. Serum inhibin A and B levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. Inhibin A is low in the early follicular phase and rises at ovulation to maximum levels in the midluteal phase. In contrast, inhibin B levels increase early in the follicular phase to reach a peak coincident with the onset of the midfollicular phase decline in FSH levels. Inhibin B levels decrease in the late follicular phase. There is a short-lived peak of the hormone 2 days after the midcycle luteinizing hormone (LH) peak. Inhibin B levels remain low during the luteal phase of the cycle. The timing of the inhibin B rise suggests that it plays a role in regulation of folliculogenesis via a negative feedback on the production of FSH. At menopause, with the depletion of ovarian follicles, serum inhibin A and B decrease to very low or undetectable levels.

 

Ovarian cancer is classified into 3 types: epithelial (80%), germ cell tumors (10%-15%), and stromal sex-cord tumors (5%-10%). Epithelial ovarian tumors are further subdivided into serous (70%), mucinous (10%-15%), and endometrioid (10%-15%) types. Granulosa cell tumors represent the majority of the stromal sex cord tumors.

 

Elevations of serum inhibin A and B are detected in some patients with granulosa cell tumors. Inhibin A elevations have been reported in approximately 70% of granulosa cell tumors. In these patients, inhibin A levels tend to show a 6-fold to 7-fold increase over the reference range value. Inhibin B elevations have been reported in 89% to 100% of patients with granulosa cell tumors. In these patients, inhibin B levels tend to be elevated about 60-fold over the reference range value. The frequency of elevated levels varies amongst studies, likely due to the different specificities of the antibodies used in the immunoassays. Inhibin A and B also appear to be suitable serum markers for epithelial tumors of the mucinous type, with about 20% of cases having elevated inhibin A levels and 55% to 60% of cases having elevated inhibin B levels. In contrast, inhibin is not a very good marker in nonmucinous epithelial tumors. At best, total inhibin is elevated in 15% to 35% of nonmucinous epithelial ovarian cancer cases.

 

Inhibin seems to be a complementary to cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) as an ovarian cancer marker. CA 125 is not as good of a tumor marker for mucinous and granulosa ovarian cell tumors. Inhibin shows a better performance in those 2 types of ovarian cancer.

 

The majority of studies for inhibin A and B as ovarian cancer markers have been limited to postmenopausal women where the levels for both proteins are normally very low. Inhibin levels vary in relation to the menstrual cycle and, therefore, are difficult to interpret in premenopausal women.

 

Inhibin B has also been used as a marker of ovarian reserve. Every female is born with a specific number of follicles containing oocytes, a number that steadily and naturally declines with age. The number of follicles remaining in the ovary at any time is called the ovarian reserve. As ovarian reserve diminishes, it is increasingly more difficult for the hormones used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) to stimulate follicle development and, thus, the likelihood of successful oocyte retrieval, fertilization, and embryo transfer decreases, all leading to a lower chance of conceiving. As part of an infertility evaluation, attempts are made to estimate a woman's ovarian reserve. Tests to assess ovarian reserve include the following: day 3 FSH, day 3 inhibin B, and antimullerian hormone levels. The amount of inhibin B measured in serum during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 3) directly reflects the number of follicles in the ovary. Therefore, the higher the inhibin B, the more ovarian follicles present. The level of inhibin B that predicts a poor response to IVF treatment has not been established with this assay.

 

In male patients, inhibin B levels are higher in those with apparently normal fertility than in those with infertility and abnormal spermatogenesis. Serum inhibin B, when used in combination with FSH, is a more sensitive marker of spermatogenesis than FSH alone. However, the optimal level of inhibin B to assess male infertility has not been established.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER

Males: <2.0 pg/mL

Females

<11 years: <4.7 pg/mL

11-17 years: <97.5 pg/mL

Premenopausal: <97.5 pg/mL

Postmenopausal: <2.1 pg/Ml

 

INHIBIN B

Males

<15 days: 68-373 pg/mL

15-180 days: 42-516 pg/mL

6 months-7 years: 24-300 pg/mL

8-30 years: 47-383 pg/mL

31-72 years: <358 pg/mL

>72 years: Not established

Females

< or =12 years: <183 pg/mL

13-41 years regular Cycle (Follicular Phase): <224 pg/mL

42-51 years regular Cycle (Follicular Phase): <108 pg/mL

13-51 years regular Cycle (Luteal Phase): <80 pg/mL

>51 years (Postmenopausal): <12 pg/mL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Inhibin A levels are elevated in approximately 70% of patients with granulosa cell tumors and in approximately 20% of patients with epithelial ovarian tumors.

 

Inhibin B levels are elevated in approximately 89% to 100% of patients with granulosa cell tumors and in approximately 55% to 60% of patients with epithelial ovarian tumors.

 

A normal inhibin A or B level does not rule out a mucinous or granulosa ovarian cell tumor.

 

For monitoring of patients with known ovarian cancer, inhibin A and B levels decrease shortly after surgery. Elevations of inhibin A or B after treatment are suggestive of residual, recurrent, or progressive disease. In patients with recurrent disease, inhibin A or B elevation seems to be present earlier than clinical symptoms. Patients in remission show normal levels of inhibin A and B.

 

For infertility evaluation, an inhibin B level in the postmenopausal range is suggestive of a diminished or depleted ovarian reserve.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Inhibin values fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. Inhibin levels in premenopausal women should be interpreted with caution.

 

Do not interpret serum inhibin levels as absolute evidence of the presence or the absence of malignant disease. Use results in conjunction with information from the clinical evaluation of the patient and other diagnostic procedures.

 

Tumor markers are not specific for malignancy and values may vary by testing methodology. The same method should be used to serially monitor patients.

 

Some patients who have been exposed to animal antigens, either in the environment or as part of treatment or imaging procedures, may have circulating anti-animal antibodies present. These antibodies may interfere with the assay reagents to produce unreliable results.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Mom CH, Engelen MJ, Willemse PH, et al: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: the clinical value of serum inhibin A and B levels in a large single center cohort. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 May;105(2):365-372

2. Robertson DM, Pruysers E, Jobling T: Inhibin as a diagnostic marker for ovarian cancer. Cancer Lett. 2007; 249:14-17

3. Jamieson S, Fuller PJ: Management of granulosa cell tumour of the ovary. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008;20(5):560-564

4. Sturgeon C: Tumor markers, In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:436-478

5. Yarbrough ML, Stout M, Gronowski AM: Pregnancy and its disorders, In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:1655-1696

6. Makanji Y, Zhu J, Mishra R, et al: Inhibin at 90: from discovery to clinical application, a historical review. Endocr Rev. 2014;35(5):747–794. doi: 10.1210/er.2014-1003

7. Walentowicz P, Krintus M, Sadlecki P, et al: Serum inhibin A and inhibin B levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e90575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.009057

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The Access Inhibin A assay is a sequential 2-step immunoenzymatic ("sandwich'') assay. Sample is added to a reaction vessel and incubated with paramagnetic particles coupled with anti-inhibin A monoclonal antibody. Excess sample and reagents are removed, and anti-inhibin A monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate is then added to a reaction mixture. After incubation, unbound materials are washed away. Antibody-analyte complex is detected by addition of the chemiluminescent substrate. The light production is directly proportional to the concentration of inhibin A in the sample.(Package insert: Access Inhibin A. Beckman Coulter Inc; 04/2020)

 

The ultra-sensitive Inhibin B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a quantitative three-step sandwich type immunoassay. Sample is incubated in wells that have been coated with inhibin B antibody. After incubation and washing, the wells are incubated with biotinylated inhibin B antibody. After a second incubation and washing step, the wells are incubated with streptavidin horseradish peroxidase conjugate (SHRP). After the third incubation and washing step, the wells are incubated with substrate solution. After incubation, an acidic stopping solution is added. Antibody-analyte complex is detected by dual wavelength absorbance measurement at 450nm as the primary test filter and 620 nm as the reference filter. The absorbance measured is directly proportional to the concentration of Inhibin B in the samples and calibrators.(Package insert: Ultra-Sensitive Inhibin B ELISA. Ansh Labs; 12/2020)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Inhibin A: Monday through Saturday

Inhibin B: Monday, Wednesday, Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 6 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

12 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83520-Inhibin B

86336-Inhibin A

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
INHAB Inhibin A and B, Tumor Marker, S 87426-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Result LOINC Value Tooltip

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports