Test Catalog

Test Id : ZNU

Zinc, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying the cause of abnormal serum zinc concentrations using a 24-hour urine specimen

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Zinc, 24 Hr, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Zn (Zinc)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Necessary Information

24-Hour volume is required.

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
TM8 Collection Duration
VL5 Urine Volume

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of barium are known to interfere with this test. If barium-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for at least 96 hours.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine collection container with no metal cap or glued insert

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic urine tube or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 10 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

OK

Refrigerate

Preferred

Frozen

OK

50% Acetic Acid

OK

Boric Acid

No

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

OK

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Ambient 28 days
Frozen 28 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying the cause of abnormal serum zinc concentrations using a 24-hour urine specimen

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Zinc is an essential element; it is a critical cofactor for carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, RNA and DNA polymerases, alcohol dehydrogenase, and many other physiologically important proteins. Zinc is a key element required for active wound healing.

 

Zinc depletion occurs either because it is not absorbed from the diet (excess copper or iron interfere with absorption) or it is lost after absorption. Dietary deficiency may be due to absence (parenteral nutrition), or because the zinc in the diet is bound to fiber and not available for absorption. Once absorbed, the most common route of loss is via exudates from open wounds such as third-degree burns or gastrointestinal loss as in colitis. Hepatic cirrhosis also causes excess loss of zinc by enhancing renal excretion. The peptidase, kinase, and phosphorylase enzymes are most sensitive to zinc depletion.

 

Zinc excess is not of major clinical concern. The popular American habit of taking megavitamins (containing huge doses of zinc) produces no direct toxicity problems. Much of this zinc passes through the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in the feces. The excess fraction that is absorbed is excreted in the urine. The only known effect of excessive zinc ingestion relates to the fact that zinc interferes with copper absorption, which can lead to hypocupremia.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

0-17 years: not established

> or =18 years: 109-1,476 mcg/24 hours

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Fecal excretion of zinc is the dominant route of elimination. Renal excretion is a minor, secondary elimination pathway. Normal daily excretion of zinc in the urine is in the range of 20 to 967 mcg/24 hours.

 

High urine zinc associated with low serum zinc may be caused by hepatic cirrhosis, neoplastic disease, or increased catabolism.

 

High urine zinc with normal or elevated serum zinc indicates a large dietary source, usually in the form of high-dose vitamins.

 

Low urine zinc with low serum zinc may be caused by dietary deficiency or loss through exudation common in burn patients and those with gastrointestinal losses.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Sata F, Araki S, Murata K, Aono H: Behavior of heavy metals in human urine and blood following calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate injection: observations in heavy metal workers. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998;54(3):167-178

2. Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Kazi NG, et al: Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Jan;24(1):34-43

3. Zorbas YG, Kakuris KK, Neofitov IA, Afoninos NI: Zinc utilization in zinc-supplemented and -unsupplemented healthy subjects during and after prolonged hypokinesia. Tr Elem Electro. 2008;25(2):60-68

4. Rifai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This assay is performed on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer in dynamic reaction cell (DRC) mode. Calibrating standards and blanks are diluted with an aqueous acidic diluent containing internal standards. Quality control specimens and patient samples are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control specimens, and patient specimens are aspirated into a pneumatic nebulizer and the resulting aerosol directed to the hot plasma discharge by a flow of argon. In the annular plasma the aerosol is vaporized, atomized, and then ionized. The ionized gases plus neutral species formed in the annular plasma space are aspirated from the plasma through an orifice into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mass range from 1 to 263 amu is rapidly scanned multiple times and ion counts tabulated for each mass of interest. Instrument response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration versus ion count ratio (analyte ion count/internal standard ion count). Analyte concentrations are derived by reading the ion count ratio for each mass of interest and determining the concentration from the response line.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Sunday, Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84630

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
ZNU Zinc, 24 Hr, U 5765-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
8591 Zinc, 24 Hr, U 5765-3
TM8 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL5 Urine Volume 3167-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports