Test Catalog

Test Id : CUU

Copper, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of Wilson disease and obstructive liver disease using a 24-hour urine specimen

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Copper, 24 Hr, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Copper (Cu)

Wilson's Disease

Wilson Disease

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Necessary Information

24-Hour volume is required.

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
TM7 Collection Duration
VL4 Urine Volume

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of barium are known to interfere with this test. If barium-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for at least 96 hours.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine collection container with no metal cap or glued insert

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic urine tube or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 10 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

OK

Refrigerate

Preferred

Frozen

OK

50% Acetic Acid

OK

Boric Acid

No

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

OK

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Ambient 28 days
Frozen 28 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of Wilson disease and obstructive liver disease using a 24-hour urine specimen

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The biliary system is the major pathway of copper excretion. Biliary excretion of copper requires an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent transporter protein. Variants in the gene for the transporter protein cause hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson disease). Ceruloplasmin, the primary copper-carrying protein in the blood, is also reduced in Wilson disease. Urine copper excretion is increased in Wilson disease due to a decreased serum binding of copper to ceruloplasmin or due to allelic variances in cellular metal ion transporters.

 

Hypercupricuria (increased urinary copper) is also found in hemochromatosis, biliary cirrhosis, thyrotoxicosis, various infections, and a variety of other acute, chronic, and malignant diseases (including leukemia). Urine copper concentrations are also elevated in patients taking contraceptives or estrogens and during pregnancy.

 

Low urine copper levels are seen in malnutrition, hypoproteinemias, malabsorption, and nephrotic syndrome. Increased zinc consumption interferes with normal copper absorption from the gastrointestinal tract causing hypocupremia.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

0-17 years: not established

> or =18 years: 9-71 mcg/24 hours

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Humans normally excrete less than 60 mcg/day of copper in the urine.

 

Urinary copper excretion greater than 60 mcg/day may be seen in:

-Wilson disease

-Obstructive biliary disease (eg, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis)

-Nephrotic syndrome (due to leakage through the kidney)

-Chelation therapy

-Estrogen therapy

-Mega dosing of zinc-containing vitamins

 

Because ceruloplasmin is an acute phase reactant, urine copper is elevated during acute inflammation. During the recovery phase, urine copper is usually below normal, reflecting the expected physiologic response to replace the copper that was depleted during inflammation.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Zorbas YG, Kakuris KK, Deogenov VA, et al: Copper homeostasis during hypokinesia in healthy subjects with higher and lower copper consumption. Tr Elem Electro. 2008;25:169-178

2. Lech T, Sadlik JK: Contribution to the data on copper concentration in blood and urine in patients with Wilson's disease and in normal subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 July;118(1):16-20

3. Rifai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This assay is performed on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer in dynamic reaction cell mode. Calibration standards and blanks are diluted with an aqueous acidic diluent containing internal standards. Quality control specimens and patient specimens are diluted in an identical manner. In turn, all diluted blanks, calibrating standards, quality control specimens and patient specimens are aspirated into a pneumatic nebulizer and the resulting aerosol directed to the hot plasma discharge by a flow of argon. In the annular plasma the aerosol is vaporized, atomized, and then ionized. The ionized gases plus neutral species formed in the annular plasma space are aspirated from the plasma through an orifice into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mass range from 1 to 263 amu is rapidly scanned multiple times and ion counts tabulated for each mass of interest. Instrument response is defined by the linear relationship of analyte concentration versus ion count ratio (analyte ion count/internal standard ion count). Analyte concentrations are derived by reading the ion count ratio for each mass of interest and determining the concentration from the response line.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Sunday, Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82525

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CUU Copper, 24 Hr, U 5633-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
8590 Copper, 24 Hr, U 5633-3
TM7 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL4 Urine Volume 3167-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports