Test Catalog

Test Id : BILEA

Bile Acids, Total, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

An aid in the evaluation of liver function

 

Evaluation of liver function changes before the formation of more advanced clinical signs of illness such as icterus

 

An aid in the determination of hepatic dysfunction as a result of chemical and environmental injury

 

An indicator of hepatic histological improvement in chronic hepatitis C patients responding to interferon treatment

 

An indicator for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzymatic

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Bile Acids, Total, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Bile Acids, Total

Bile Salts, Total

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

This test is for evaluation of hepatobiliary dysfunction.

 

For evaluation of bowel dysfunction, order BA48F / Bile Acids, Bowel Dysfunction, 48 Hour, Feces.

For evaluation of patients treated with urso or cholate, order BAFS / Bile Acids, Fractionated and Total, Serum.

For evaluation of inborn errors of metabolism, order BAIPD / Bile Acids for Peroxisomal Disorders, Serum.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: Patient must be fasting for 12 hours. Infants and pregnant patients do not need to fast.

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Serum gel tubes should be centrifuged within 2 hours of collection.

2. Red-top tubes should be centrifuged and serum aliquoted into plastic vial within 2 hours of collection.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.25 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 30 days
Ambient 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

An aid in the evaluation of liver function

 

Evaluation of liver function changes before the formation of more advanced clinical signs of illness such as icterus

 

An aid in the determination of hepatic dysfunction as a result of chemical and environmental injury

 

An indicator of hepatic histological improvement in chronic hepatitis C patients responding to interferon treatment

 

An indicator for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Bile acids are formed in the liver from cholesterol, conjugated primarily to glycine and taurine, stored and concentrated in the gallbladder, and secreted into the intestine after the ingestion of a meal. In the intestinal lumen, the bile acids serve to emulsify ingested fats and thereby promote digestion. During the absorptive phase of digestion, approximately 90% of the bile acids are reabsorbed.

 

The efficiency of the hepatic clearance of bile acids from portal blood maintains serum concentrations at low levels in normal persons. An elevated fasting level, due to impaired hepatic clearance, is a sensitive indicator of liver disease. Following meals, serum bile acid levels have been shown to increase only slightly in normal persons but markedly in patients with various liver diseases, including cirrhosis, hepatitis, cholestasis, portal-vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, cholangitis, Wilson disease, and hemochromatosis. No increase in bile acids will be noted in patients with intestinal malabsorption. Metabolic hepatic disorders involving organic anions (eg, Gilbert disease, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, and Dubin-Johnson syndrome) do not cause abnormal serum bile acid concentrations.

 

Significant increases in total bile acids in nonfasting pregnant females can aid in the diagnosis of cholestasis. Other factors, such as complete medical history, physical exam, and liver function tests should also be considered.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =10 mcmol/L

 

Reference interval applies to fasting total bile acid concentrations.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Total bile acids are metabolized in the liver and can serve as a marker for normal liver function.

Increases in serum bile acids are seen in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Serum total bile acid testing is generally not suitable for differentiation among the various types of liver diseases.

 

Total bile acid concentration is increased after meals; samples should be collected under fasting conditions.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Sawkat Anwer M, Meyer DJ: Bile Acids in the diagnosis, pathology, and therapy of hepatobiliary diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1995 March;25(2):503-517

2. Javitt NB: Diagnostic value of serum bile acids. Clin Gastroenterol. 1977;6:219-226

3. Osuga T, Mitamura K, Mashige F, et al: Evaluation of fluorimetrically estimated serum bile acid in liver disease. Clin Chim Acta. 1977;75:81-90

4. Shima T, Tada H, Morimoto M, et al: Serum total bile acid level as a sensitive indicator of hepatic histological improvement in chronic hepatitis C patients responding to interferon treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 March;15(30):294-299

5. Lebovics E, Seif F, Kim D, et al: Pruritus in chronic hepatitis C: Association with high serum bile acids, advanced pathology, and bile duct abnormalities. Dig Dis Sci. 1997 May;42(5):1094-1099

6. Korman MG, Hofmann AF, Summerskill WHJ: Assessment of activity in chronic active liver disease. Serum bile acids compared with conventional tests and histology. NEJM 1974 June 20;290:1399-1402

7. Manzotti C, Casazza G, Stimac T, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Total serum bile acids or serum bile acid profile, or both, for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 5;7(7):CD012546. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012546.pub2

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Testing is performed on the Roche cobas c502. In the presence of thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (Thio-NAD), the enzyme 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-alpha-HSD) converts bile acids to 3-keto steroids and Thio-NADH. The reaction is reversible, and 3-alpha-HSD can convert 3-keto steroids and Thio-NADH to bile acids and Thio-NAD. In the presence of excess NADH, the enzyme cycling occurs efficiently and the rate of formation of Thio-NADH is determined by measuring specific change of absorbance at 405 nm. (Package insert: Total Bile Acids Assay Kit. Diazyme Laboratories; 01/2020)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82239

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports