Test Catalog

Test Id : GALP

Galactose, Quantitative, Plasma

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for galactosemia

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency is the most common cause of galactosemia and requires lifelong restriction of dietary galactose.

 

Plasma galactose can be elevated in patients with galactosemia caused by galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency, galactokinase (GALK) deficiency, or galactose mutarotase (GALM) deficiency.

 

Classic galactosemia can be diagnosed by analysis of GALT enzyme.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Spectrophotometric/Kinetic

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Galactose, QN, P

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Galactose

Galactosemia

Galactokinase

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Plasma Na Heparin

Ordering Guidance

This test is not recommended for follow-up of positive newborn screening results or for diagnosis of galactosemia. The preferred test to evaluate for possible diagnosis of galactosemia, routine carrier screening, and follow-up of abnormal newborn screening results is GCT / Galactosemia Reflex, Blood along with GAL1P / Galactose-1-Phosphate, Erythrocytes.

 

The preferred test for monitoring dietary therapy is GAL1P / Galactose-1-Phosphate, Erythrocytes for both GALT and GALE deficiencies

 

This test may be useful for monitoring in patients with GALM deficiency.

Necessary Information

Biochemical Genetics Patient Information (T602) is recommended, but not required, to be filled out and sent with the specimen to aid in the interpretation of test results.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube: Green top (sodium heparin)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Na Heparin Frozen (preferred) 365 days
Ambient 20 days
Refrigerated 20 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening for galactosemia

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency is the most common cause of galactosemia and requires lifelong restriction of dietary galactose.

 

Plasma galactose can be elevated in patients with galactosemia caused by galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency, galactokinase (GALK) deficiency, or galactose mutarotase (GALM) deficiency.

 

Classic galactosemia can be diagnosed by analysis of GALT enzyme.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from a deficiency of any 1 of the 4 enzymes catalyzing the conversion of galactose to glucose: galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), galactokinase (GALK), uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase (GALE), and galactose mutarotase (GALM). GALT deficiency is the most common cause of galactosemia and is often referred to as classic galactosemia. The complete or near-complete deficiency of GALT enzyme is life-threatening if left untreated. Complications in the neonatal period include failure to thrive, liver failure, sepsis, and death.

 

Galactosemia is treated by a galactose-restricted diet, which allows for rapid recovery from the acute symptoms and a generally good prognosis. Despite adequate treatment from an early age, individuals with galactosemia remain at increased risk for developmental delays, speech problems, and abnormalities of motor function. Females with galactosemia are at increased risk for premature ovarian failure. Based upon reports by newborn screening programs, the frequency of classic galactosemia in the United States is 1 in 30,000, although literature reports range from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 60,000 live births.

 

A comparison of plasma and urine galactose and blood galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P) levels may be useful in distinguishing among the 4 forms of galactosemia.

 

 

Deficiency

Galactose (plasma/urine)

 

Gal-1-P (blood)

GALK

Elevated

Normal

GALT

Elevated

Elevated

GALE

Normal-Elevated

Elevated

GALM

Elevated

Normal-Elevated

  

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =7 days: <5.4 mg/dL

8-14 days: <3.6 mg/dL

> or =15 days: <2.0 mg/dL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Additional testing is required to investigate the cause of abnormal results.

 

In patients with galactosemia, elevated galactose in plasma or urine may suggest ineffective dietary restriction or compliance; however, the concentration of galactose-1-phosphate in erythrocytes (GAL1P / Galactose-1-Phosphate, Erythrocytes) is the most sensitive index of dietary control for patients with GALT and GALE deficiencies. Increased concentrations of galactose may also be suggestive of severe hepatitis, biliary atresia of the newborn, and, in rare cases, galactose intolerance.

 

If results are outside the normal range and galactosemia is suspected, additional testing to identify the specific enzymatic defect is required. Results should be correlated with clinical presentation and confirmed by specific enzyme or molecular analysis. See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for follow-up of abnormal newborn screening results, comprehensive diagnostic testing, and carrier testing. For more information see Ordering Guidance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Berry GT: Classic galactosemia and clinical variant galactosemia. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al. eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2000. Updated March 9, 2017. Accessed May 3, 2021. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1518/

2. Walter JH, Fridovich-Keil JL: Galactosemia. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA. eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed May 3, 2021. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=%20225081023

3. Wada Y, Kikuchi A, Arai-Ichinoi N, et al: Biallelic GALM pathogenic variants cause a novel type of galactosemia. Genet Med. 2019 Jun;21(6):1286-1294. doi: 10.1038/s41436-018-0340-x

4. Timson DJ: Type IV galactosemia. Genet Med. 2019 Jun;21(6):1283-1285. doi: 10.1038/s41436-018-0359-z

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The formation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) measured by the increase in absorbance at 340 nm is proportional to the amount of D-galactose in the sample.(Kurz G, Wallenfels K: In: Bergmeyer HV, ed: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 3. 2nd ed. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Academic Press, 1974:1279-1282; Cowan T, Pasquali M: Laboratory investigations of inborn errors of metabolism. In: Sarafoglou K, Hoffman GF, Roth KS, eds. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2017:1139-1158)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

8 to 15 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 month

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82760

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GALP Galactose, QN, P 2308-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
83638 Galactose, QN, P 2308-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports