Test Catalog

Test Id : C1QFX

C1q Complement, Functional, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of C1 deficiency

 

Investigation of a patient with an absent total complement level

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Automated Liposome Lysis Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

C1Q Complement, Functional, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

C1

Complement

First Component of Complement

Functional C1

Functional Complement

Hemolytic Complement

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum Red

Ordering Guidance

The total complement (CH50) assay (COM / Complement, Total, Serum) should be used as a screen for suspected complement deficiencies before ordering individual complement component assays. A deficiency of an individual component of the complement cascade will result in an undetectable CH50.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: Fasting preferred

Supplies: Sarstedt 5 mL Aliquot Tube (T914)

Collection Container/Tube: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Immediately after specimen collection, place the tube on wet ice.

2. Centrifuge and aliquot serum into plastic vial.

3. Immediately freeze specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Red Frozen (preferred) 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of C1 deficiency

 

Investigation of a patient with an absent total complement level

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Complement proteins are components of the innate immune system. There are 3 pathways to complement activation: 1) the classical pathway, 2) the alternative (or properdin) pathway, and 3) the lectin (or mannan binding lectin) pathway. The classical pathway of the complement system is composed of a series of proteins that are activated in response to the presence of immune complexes. A single IgM molecule or 2 IgG molecules are sufficient to trigger activation of the recognition complex initiated by C1q. The activation process triggers a cascade that includes an amplification loop. The amplification loop is mediated by C3, with cleavage of a series of proteins, and results in 3 main end products: 1) anaphylatoxins that promote inflammation (C3a, C5a), 2) opsonization peptides that are chemotactic for neutrophils (C3b) and facilitate phagocytosis, and 3) the membrane attack complex, which promotes cell lysis.

 

C1 is composed of 3 subunits designated as C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q recognizes and binds to immunoglobulin complexed to antigen and initiates the complement cascade. Congenital deficiencies of any of the early complement components (C1-C4) result in an inability to generate the peptides that are necessary to clear immune complexes and to attract neutrophils or generate lytic activity. These patients have increased susceptibility to infections with encapsulated microorganisms. They may also have symptoms that suggest autoimmune disease in which complement deficiency may be an etiologic factor.

 

Inherited deficiency of C1 is rare. Just over 40 cases have been reported for C1q deficiency, and another 20 cases have been described for C1s and C1r deficiency. C1 deficiency is associated with increased incidence of immune complex disease (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], polymyositis, glomerulonephritis, and Henoch-Schonlein purpura), with SLE the most common manifestation of C1 deficiency. The SLE associated with C1 deficiency is similar to SLE without complement deficiency, but the age of onset is often prior to puberty.

 

Low C1 levels have also been reported in patients with abnormal immunoglobulin levels (Bruton and common variable hypogammaglobulinemia and severe combined immunodeficiency), and this is most likely due to increased catabolism.

 

Complement levels can be detected by antigen assays that quantitate the amount of the protein. For most of the complement proteins a small number of cases have been described in which the protein is present but is nonfunctional. These rare cases require a functional assay to detect the deficiency.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

34-63 U/mL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Low levels of complement may be due to inherited deficiencies, acquired deficiencies, or due to complement consumption (eg, as a consequence of infectious or autoimmune processes).

 

The measurement of C1q activity is an indicator of the amount of C1 present. Absent C1q levels in the presence of normal C3 and C4 values are consistent with a C1 deficiency. Low C1q levels in the presence of low C4 but normal C3 may indicate the presence of an acquired inhibitor (autoantibody) to C1 esterase inhibitor.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Absent (or low) C1q functional levels in the presence of normal C1q antigen levels should be replicated with a new serum specimen to confirm that C1q inactivation did not occur during shipping.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Sonntag J, Brandenburg U, Polzehl D, et al: Complement systems in healthy term newborns: reference values in umbilical cord blood. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 1998 Mar-Apr;1(2):131-135

2. Prellner K, Sjoholm AG, Truedsson L: Concentrations of C1q, factor B, factor D and properdin in healthy children, and the age-related presence of circulating C1r-C1s complexes. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987 Nov;76(6):939-943

3. Davis ML, Austin C, Messmer BL, et al: IFCC-standardization pediatric reference intervals for 10 serum proteins using the Beckman Array 360 system. Clin Biochem. 1996;29(5):489-492

4. Gaither TA, Frank MM: Complement. In: Henry JB, ed. Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 17th ed. WB Saunders Company: 1984:879-892

5. O'Neil KM: Complement deficiency. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2000;19:83-108

6. Frank MM: Complement deficiencies. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000;47(6):1339-1354

7. Brodszki N, Frazer-Abel A, Grumach AS, et al: European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) and European Reference Network on Rare Primary Immunodeficiency, Autoinflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases (ERN RITA) Complement Guideline: Deficiencies, diagnosis, and management. J Clin Immunol. 2020;40(4):576-591

8. Willrich MAV, Braun KMP, Moyer AM, Jeffrey DH, Frazer-Abel A. Complement testing in the clinical laboratory. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2021 Nov;58(7):447-478. doi: 10.1080/10408363.2021.1907297

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

C1q complement activity is measured by mixing patient serum with a C1q-deficient serum. The lytic activity of the serum mixture is tested against sensitized, labeled liposomes. If lysis occurs, the patient serum must be the source of the C1q. The target liposomes are a commercial reagent (WAKO total complement CH50), and the assay is performed on an Advia XPT.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86161

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
C1QFX C1Q Complement, Functional, S 87722-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
C1QFX C1Q Complement, Functional, S 87722-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports