Test Catalog

Test Id : HPFH

Hemoglobin F Distribution, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Distinguishing large deletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin from other conditions with increased percentage of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F)

 

Determining the distribution of Hb F within red blood cells

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see:

-HAEV1 / Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation, Blood

-HBEL1 / Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Evaluation, Blood

-MEV1 / Methemoglobinemia Evaluation, Blood

-REVE1 / Erythrocytosis Evaluation, Blood

-THEV1 / Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation, Blood

 

Flow Cytometry

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Hb F Distribution, B

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Acid Elution Test for Fetal Hgb

Fetal Hemoglobin

HEMOGLOBIN-F DISTRIBUTION (RBC)

Hemoglobin F, Red Cell Distribution, Blood

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole Blood EDTA

Ordering Guidance

This test is for hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin only. For testing for possible fetal-maternal bleed, see FMB / Fetomaternal Bleed, Flow Cytometry, Blood.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see:

-HAEV1 / Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation, Blood

-HBEL1 / Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Evaluation, Blood

-MEV1 / Methemoglobinemia Evaluation, Blood

-REVE1 / Erythrocytosis Evaluation, Blood

-THEV1 / Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation, Blood

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL 

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Clotted blood Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole Blood EDTA Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Distinguishing large deletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin from other conditions with increased percentage of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F)

 

Determining the distribution of Hb F within red blood cells

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

More than 75% of the hemoglobin of the newborn is hemoglobin (Hb) F; it diminishes over a period of several months to adult levels, reducing to less than 2% by 1 year of age and less than 1% by 2 years of age.

 

Hb F may constitute 90% of the total Hb in patients with beta-thalassemia major or other combinations of beta thalassemia and fetal Hb (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin: HPFH) variants.

 

Hb F is often mildly to moderately elevated in sickle cell disease, aplastic anemia, acute leukemia, and myeloproliferative disorders such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, hereditary spherocytosis, and alpha-thalassemia minor. It is commonly increased in hemoglobinopathies associated with hemolysis. Hb F increases to as high as 10% during normal pregnancy. Hb F is also increased due to medications such as hydroxyurea, decitabine, and lenalidomide. Elevation in Hb F has a been cited as a discriminator between Diamond-Blackfan congenital pure red cell aplasia (elevated) and transient erythroblastopenia of childhood (normal), but whether this simply reflects the chronicity of anemia inherent to the former condition rather than a specific finding is unclear.

 

In the common (large deletional) form of the genetic trait HPFH, all of the erythrocytes contain Hb F. When tested by flow cytometry using specificity for Hb F, these HPFH cases display a homocellular distribution pattern of Hb F within the red blood cell population. Other causes of increased Hb F, including delta beta thalassemia, hydroxyurea, and some nondeletional HPFH variants, typically display a heterocellular distribution of Hb F within the erythrocytes, reflecting disparate populations of F cells and cells lacking Hb F. Quantification of Hb F percentage should be determined prior to flow cytometry of Hb F red blood cell distribution to establish the appropriateness of this test. The flow cytometry analysis of elevated Hb F levels is useful when Hb F percentage is 15% to 35% and the clinical differential diagnosis includes large deletional HPFH. Hb F percentages below 15% are likely not due to large deletional HPFH, and the causes of Hb F percentages above 35% are better confirmed by molecular and family studies.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see:

-HAEV1 / Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation, Blood

-HBEL1 / Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Evaluation, Blood

-MEV1 / Methemoglobinemia Evaluation, Blood

-REVE1 / Erythrocytosis Evaluation, Blood

-THEV1 / Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation, Blood

 

Reported as: Heterocellular, Homocellular, or Equivocal

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Homocellular distribution of fetal hemoglobin (Hb) is found in large deletional hereditary persistence of fetal Hb.

 

Heterocellular distribution is found in delta beta thalassemia, medication induced, and other causes of increased Hb F.

 

An equivocal result indicates the pattern is not typical for either a homocellular or heterocellular distribution.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

When hemoglobin (Hb) F values are above 35%, most specimens show a homocellular pattern; this does not necessarily indicate hereditary persistence of fetal Hb. Clinical correlation is needed.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Kleihauer E, Braun H, Betke K: Demonstration von fetalem Hamoglobin in den Erythrocyten eines Blutaustrichs. Klin Wschr. 1957 Jun15;35(12):637-638

2. Shepard MK, Weatherall DJ, Conley CC: Semi-quantitative estimation of the distribution of fetal hemoglobin in red cell populations. Bull Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1962 Jun;110:293-310

3. Davis BH, Olsen S, Bigelow NC, Chen JC: Detection of fetal red cells in fetomaternal hemorrhage using a fetal hemoglobin monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry. Transfusion. 1998 Aug;38(8):749-756

4. Hoyer JD, Penz CS, Fairbanks VF, et al: Flow cytometric measurement of hemoglobin F in RBCs: diagnostic usefulness in the distinction of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and hemoglobin S-hPFH from other conditions with elevated levels of hemoglobin F. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002 Jun;117(6):857-863

5. Stephens AD, Angastiniotis M, Baysal E, et al: International Council for The Standardisation of Haematology (ICSH). ICSH recommendations for the measurement of haemoglobin F. Int J Lab Hematol. 2012 Feb;34(1):14-20

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This assay uses a flow cytometric method with a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin (Hb) F. Specimens are analyzed by single-color flow cytometry using fluorescein anti-Hb F. In normal adults, a single peak is seen with minimal fluorescence, which corresponds to Hb A. In neonates, a single peak with bright fluorescence is seen, which corresponds to Hb F. In cases of hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH) only, a single peak is observed, which has a fluorescence intensity intermediate between the normal Hb A and Hb F peaks. This pattern corresponds to the homocellular (pancellular) pattern obtained by the Kleihauer-Betke (K-B) method. In contrast, specimens from infants, transfused neonates, and cases of beta-thalassemia or delta/beta-thalassemia show both Hb A and Hb F peaks, corresponding to the heterocellular pattern of the K-B method. In patients with Hb S/HPFH, a single peak was observed in contrast to patients with homozygous S in which 2 peaks were observed.(Package insert: Invitrogen Fetal Hemoglobin Test Kit with FITC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody Directed to HbF. Life Technologies Corporation; MAN 0003641, Rev 3.02, 11/21/2019)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

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  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

88184

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
HPFH Hb F Distribution, B 4579-9
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
8270 Hb F Distribution, B 4579-9
2104 Interpretation 59466-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports