Test Catalog

Test Id : LVZV

Varicella-Zoster Virus, Molecular Detection, PCR, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Rapid (qualitative) detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis of disease due to this virus

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/DNA Probe Hybridization

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Varicella-Zoster Virus PCR

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Chickenpox

Herpes Zoster

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

Varicella-Zoster Virus Detection by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), CSF

VZV Dermal

VZV Detection by Real-Time PCR

Varicella-Zoster Virus Detection by Real-Time PCR

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)

Shingles

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Necessary Information

Specimen source is required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Supplies: Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T465)

Specimen Type: Fluid

Sources: Spinal, pleural, peritoneal, ascites, pericardial, amniotic, or ocular

Container/Tube: Sterile container

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions: Do not centrifuge.

 

Supplies:

-Culturette (BBL Culture Swab) (T092)

-M4-RT (T605)

-Bartels FlexTrans VTM-3 mL (T892)

-Jiangsu VTM-3 mL (T891)

Specimen Type: Swab

Sources: Miscellaneous; dermal, eye, nasal, or throat

Container/Tube: Multimicrobe media (M4-RT) (T605) and ESwabs

Collection Instructions: Place swab back into multimicrobe media (M4-RT [T605], M4, or M5).

 

Supplies:

-Culturette (BBL Culture Swab) (T092)

-M4-RT (T605)

-Bartels FlexTrans VTM-3 mL (T892)

-Jiangsu VTM-3 mL (T891)

Specimen Type: Swab

Sources: Genital; cervix, vagina, urethra, anal/rectal, or other genital sources

Container/Tube: Multimicrobe media (M4-RT) (T605) and ESwabs

Collection Instructions: Place swab back into multimicrobe media (M4-RT [T605], M4, or M5).

 

Specimen Type: Fluid

Sources: Respiratory; bronchial washing, bronchoalveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal aspirate or washing, sputum, or tracheal aspirate

Container/Tube: Sterile container

Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL

 

Supplies:

-M4-RT (T605)

-Bartels FlexTrans VTM-3 mL (T892)

-Jiangsu VTM-3 mL (T891)

Specimen Type: Tissue

Sources: Brain, colon, kidney, liver, lung, etc.

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Multimicrobe media (M4-RT) (T605)

Acceptable: Sterile container with 1 to 2 mL of sterile saline

Specimen Volume: Entire collection

Collection Instructions: Submit only fresh tissue in a sterile container containing 1 mL to 2 mL of sterile saline or multimicrobe medium (M4-RT [T605], M4, or M5)

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Body Fluid, Ocular Fluid, or Spinal Fluid: 0.3 mL

Respiratory Specimens: 1 mL

Tissue: 2 x 2-mm biopsy

 

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Swab/Tissue Calcium alginate-tipped swab, wood swab, or transport swab containing gel Formalin-fixed and/or paraffin-embedded tissues

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Rapid (qualitative) detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis of disease due to this virus

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). VZV produces a generalized vesicular rash on the dermis (chickenpox) in normal children, usually before 10 years of age. After primary infection with VZV, the virus persists in latent form and may emerge clinically (usually in adults 50 years of age and older) to cause a unilateral vesicular eruption, generally in a dermatomal distribution (shingles).

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Negative

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Detection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in clinical specimens supports the clinical diagnosis of infection due to this virus.

 

VZV DNA is not detected in cerebrospinal fluid from patients without central nervous system disease caused by this virus.

 

This LightCycler PCR assay does not yield positive results with other herpesvirus gene targets (herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus).

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A negative result does not exclude the possibility of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection.

 

The reference range is typically "negative" for this assay. This assay is only to be used for patients with a clinical history and symptoms consistent with VZV infection, and must be interpreted in the context of the clinical picture. This test is not used to screen asymptomatic patients.

Supportive Data

The following validation data supports the use of this assay for clinical testing.

 

Accuracy/Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity:

LightCycler PCR (primers, directed to varicella-zoster virus [VZV], gene 29) was compared with shell vial cell cultures for the detection of VZV from 253 dermal specimens. Twenty-three specimens (9.1%) were positive for VZV by LightCycler PCR and by the shell vial cell culture assay. An additional 21 specimens exclusively yielded VZV DNA. These discrepant specimens were resolved as true-positive results by confirmation of results by PCR using primers directed to another gene of VZV. Importantly, there were no instances in which VZV was recovered by the shell vial assay and not detected by LightCycler PCR (specificity, 100%). Of 100 cerebrospinal fluid specimens tested by both conventional PCR and LightCycler PCR, VZV DNA was detected in 49 specimens by both methods; 1 specimen was positive only by the conventional PCR assay. Fifty specimens were found to be negative for VZV DNA by both techniques.

 

Supplemental Data (Spiking Studies):

To supplement the above data, 30 negative specimens each of various types were spiked with VZV plasmid at the limit of detection (10-20 targets/microliter). The spiked specimens were run in a blinded fashion along with approximately 30 negative (nonspiked) specimens each of various specimen types; 90% to 100% of the spiked specimens were positive and 100% of the nonspiked specimens were negative 

 

Analytical Sensitivity/Limit of Detection (LoD):

The LoD of this assay is 10 to 20 DNA target copies per microliter in specimen matrix.

 

Analytical Specificity:

No PCR signal was obtained from extracts of 27 bacterial, viral, and fungal isolates that could be found as normal flora in sites normally tested for this organism or that could cause similar symptoms.

 

Precision:

Interassay precision was 100% and intraassay precision was 97%.

 

Reportable Range:

This test is a qualitative assay and results are reported as negative or positive for targeted VZV DNA.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Cinque P, Bossolasco S, Vago L, et al: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: VZV disease of the central nervous system or subclinical reactivation of VZV infection? Clin Infect Dis 1997;25(3):634-639

2. Brown M, Scarborough M, Brink N, et al: Varicella zoster virus-associated neurological disease in HIV-infected patients. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12(2):79-83

3. Studahl M, Hagberg L, Rekabdar E, Bergstrom T: Herpesvirus DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid: differences in clinical presentation between alpha-, beta-, and gamma-herpesviruses. Scand J Infect Dis 2000;32(3):237-248

4. Iten A, Chatelard P, Vuadens P, et al: Impact of cerebrospinal fluid PCR on the management of HIV-infected patients with varicella-zoster virus infection of the central nervous system. J Neurovirol 1999;5(2):172-180

5. Sauerbrei A: Varicella-zoster virus infections - antiviral therapy and diagnosis. GMS Infect Dis 2016 Feb 17;4:Doc01 doi: 10.3205/id000019

6. Sauerbrei A: Diagnosis, antiviral therapy, and prophylaxis of varicella-zoster virus infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 May;35(5):723-734 doi: 10.1007/s10096-016-2605-0

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Viral nucleic acid is extracted by the MagNA Pure automated instrument (Roche Applied Science) from clinical specimens. Primers directed to target DNA (ss DNA binding proteins: gene 29) produce a 202-bp amplicon. The LightCycler instrument amplifies and monitors by fluorescence the development of target nucleic acid sequences after the annealing step during PCR cycling. This is an automated PCR system that can rapidly detect (30-40 minutes) amplicon development though stringent air-controlled temperature cycling in capillary cuvettes. The detection of amplified products is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) hybridization probe with a donor fluorophore, fluorescein, on the 3' end is excited by an external light source and emits light that is absorbed by a second hybridization probe with an acceptor fluorophore, LC-Red 640, at the 5' end. The acceptor fluorophore then emits a light of a different wavelength that can be measured with a signal that is proportional to the amount of specific PCR product. Melting curve analysis is performed following PCR amplification. Starting at 45 degrees C, the temperature in the thermal chamber is slowly raised to 80 degrees C, and the fluorescence is measured at frequent intervals. Analysis of the PCR amplification and probe melting curves is accomplished through the use of LightCycler software.(Dhiman N, Wright PA, Espy MJ, et al: Concurrent detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses by polymerase chain reaction from the same anatomic location. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2011 Aug;70(4):538-540 doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.03.014; Espy MJ, Teo R, Ross TK, et al: Diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infections in the clinical laboratory by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38[9]:3187-3189)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Saturday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

87798

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports