Test Catalog

Test Id : VZM

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Antibody, IgM, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing acute-phase infection with varicella-zoster virus

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Varicella-Zoster Ab, IgM, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Chicken Pox

Herpes Zoster antibodies

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)

VZV (Varicella-Zoster Virus)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Infectious Disease Serology Test Request (T916) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Heat-inactivated specimen Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing acute-phase infection with varicella-zoster virus

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpes virus, causes 2 exanthematous (rash-associated) diseases, chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles). Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease usually contracted during childhood and is characterized by a dermal vesiculopustular rash that develops in successive crops approximately 10 to 21 days following exposure.(1). Although primary infection results in immunity to subsequent exposure to chickenpox, the virus remains latent in the body, localized to the dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia. Reactivation of latent infection manifests as herpes zoster. On reactivation, the virus migrates along neural pathways to the skin, producing a unilateral rash usually limited to a single dermatome. Reactivation occurs in older adults and in patients with impaired cellular immunity.(2)

 

Several populations are at risk of suffering unusually severe reactions to VZV infections. The infection in pregnant women may spread through the placenta to the fetus causing congenital disease in the infant. Immunocompromised patients in hospitals may contract severe nosocomial infections from others who have active VZV infections are at risk for developing severe VZV-related complications, which include cutaneous disseminated disease and visceral organ involvement.(2,3). Therefore, serologic screening of direct health care providers (physicians, allied health care personnel) and individuals in high-risk groups is necessary to avoid uncontrolled spread of infection.

 

While the clinical presentation of VZV infection is generally characteristic, serologic evaluation of patients with atypical and systemic infections is often required. For example, it is extremely important to serologically evaluate patients for the early detection of VZV infections in hospital settings. Nosocomial spread of VZV infection can be life-threatening to immunocompromised patients susceptible to infection.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Negative

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A positive IgM result indicates a recent infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV).

 

A negative result does not rule out the diagnosis of VZV infection. The specimen may have been drawn before the appearance of detectable antibodies. Negative results in suspected early VZV infection should be followed by testing a new specimen in 2 to 3 weeks.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

The performance characteristics with individuals vaccinated with varicella-zoster virus (OKA strain) have not been established.

 

The test must be performed on serum. The use of whole blood, plasma, or cord blood has not been established.

 

Positive results from cord blood or neonates should be interpreted with caution.

 

Results from immunocompromised patients should be interpreted with caution.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Yankowitz J, Grose C: Congenital infections. In: Storch GA, ed. Essentials of diagnostic virology. Churchill Livingstone; 2000:187-201

2. Gnann JW, Whitley RJ: Herpes Zoster. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:340-346

3. Cvjetkovic D, Jovanovic J, Hrnjakovic-Cvjetkovic I, et al: Reactivation of herpes zoster infection by varicella-zoster virus. Med Pregl. 1999;52(3):125-128

4. Flamholc L: Neurological complications in herpes zoster. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;100:35-40

5. Whitely RJ: Chickenpox and Herpes Zoster (Varicella-Zoster virus). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020:1849-1856

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The presence or absence of IgM-class antibody to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is determined by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum is incubated with VZV antigen that is adhered to a glass microscope slide. Antibodies, if present, will bind to the antigen forming stable antigen-antibody complexes. If no antibodies are present, the complexes will not be formed and the serum components will be washed away. Fluorescein-labeled antihuman-IgM antibody is added to the reaction side and binds to IgM antibodies, if present. This results in a positive reaction of bright apple-green fluorescence when viewed with a fluorescence microscope.(Package insert: Bion Varicella Zoster Antigen Substrate Slide. Bion Enterprises; 11/2015)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86787

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VZM Varicella-Zoster Ab, IgM, S 43588-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
80964 Varicella-Zoster Ab, IgM, S 43588-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports