Test Catalog

Test Id : OXYBS

Oxysterols, Blood Spot

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of possible diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease types A, B, or C in blood spot specimens

 

Monitoring of individuals with Niemann-Pick disease type C

 

This test is not suitable for the identification of carriers.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Oxysterols, BS

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Niemann-Pick type A

Niemann-Pick type B

Niemann-Pick type C

Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency

ASM Deficiency

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole blood

Ordering Guidance

This test's clinical sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is 75% and 89%, respectively. If NPC is strongly suspected, the recommended test is OXNP / Oxysterols, Plasma.

 

This test is available separately as well as a part of HSMBS / Hepatosplenomegaly Panel, Blood Spot. If this test is ordered with either GPSY / Glucopsychosine, Blood Spot or CTXBS / Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis, Blood Spot, the individual tests will be canceled and HSMBS ordered.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies:

-Card-Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

-Card-Postmortem Screening (Filter Paper) (T525)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper)

Acceptable: Whatman Protein Saver 903 filter paper, PerkinElmer 226 (formerly Ahlstrom 226) filter paper, Munktell filter paper, Postmortem Screening Card or collected with EDTA, sodium heparin, lithium heparin, or ACD B-containing devices

Specimen Volume: 2 Blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. Let blood dry completely on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.

2. At least 1 spot should be complete, (ie, unpunched).

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777).

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800).

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 Blood spot

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Shows serum rings
Insufficient specimen
Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole blood Refrigerated (preferred) 10 days FILTER PAPER
Frozen 59 days FILTER PAPER
Ambient 10 days FILTER PAPER

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of possible diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease types A, B, or C in blood spot specimens

 

Monitoring of individuals with Niemann-Pick disease type C

 

This test is not suitable for the identification of carriers.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Niemann-Pick disease types A, B, and C (NPA, NPB, and NPC, respectively) are a group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders affecting metabolism of specific lipids within cells.

 

NPA and NPB are caused by a deficiency of sphingomyelinase that results in extensive storage of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in the liver, spleen, lungs, and, to a lesser degree, brain. NPA disease is more severe than NPB and is characterized by early onset with feeding problems, dystrophy, persistent jaundice, development of hepatosplenomegaly, neurological deterioration, deafness, and blindness leading to death by age 3 years of age. NPB disease is limited to visceral symptoms with survival into adulthood. Some patients have been described with intermediary phenotypes. Characteristic of the disease are large lipid-laden foam cells. Approximately 50% of cases have cherry-red spots in the macula. Sphingomyelinase is encoded by the SMPD1 gene.

 

The combined prevalence of NPA and NPB is estimated to be 1 in 250,000. NPA and NPB are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and are caused by variants in the SMPD1 gene. Although there is a higher frequency of type A among the Ashkenazi Jewish population, both types are panethnic. Individuals with NPA and NPB typically have elevations of lyso-sphingomyelin (LSM) and lyso-sphingomyelin 509 (LSM 509) combined with potential elevations in cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol (COT) or 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC). Molecular genetic testing for NPA and NPB disease is also available (see CGPH / Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies; specify gene list ID: IEMCP-W6S9XD).

 

NPC is caused by a defect in cellular cholesterol trafficking that results in the progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes.(1) NPC is considered a lipid storage disorder with variable age of onset (range: perinatal period to adulthood), and highly variable clinical presentation. Most individuals are diagnosed during childhood with symptoms that include ataxia, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, dystonia, progressive speech deterioration, and seizures. Infants may present with or without hepatosplenomegaly and respiratory failure. Those without liver and pulmonary disease may present with hypotonia and developmental delay. Adult-onset NPC is associated with a slower progression and is characterized by psychiatric illness, ataxia, dystonia, and speech difficulties.

 

The incidence of NPC is approximately 1 in 120,000 to 150,000 live births. NPC is an autosomal recessive condition and is caused by variants in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Most individuals with NPC exhibit elevated levels of oxysterol COT in dried blood spots, however, testing in plasma (OXNP / Oxysterols, Plasma) is more sensitive, particularly in patients with an atypical presentation. Elevations may also be seen in lyso-sphingomyelin 509 (LSM 509) and 7-KC. The diagnosis of NPC can be confirmed by demonstration of impaired cholesterol esterification and positive filipin staining in cultured fibroblasts (NIEM / Niemann-Pick Type C Detection, Fibroblasts) or by molecular genetic analysis of the NPC1 and NPC2 genes (see CGPH / Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies; specify gene list ID: IEMCP-H683JG).

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

CHOLESTANE-3-BETA,5-ALPHA,6-BETA-TRIOL

Cutoff: < or =0.800 nmol/mL

 

LYSO-SPHINGOMYELIN

Cutoff: < or =0.100 nmol/mL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An elevation of cholestane-3-beta, 5-alpha, 6-beta-triol is highly suggestive of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) disease.

 

An elevation of lyso-sphingomyelin is highly suggestive of Niemann-Pick disease type A or B (NPA or NPB) disease.

 

An elevation of lyso-sphingomyelin 509 is suggestive of NPA, NPB or NPC disease.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Nonspecific neonatal cholestasis may result in elevations of cholestane-3-beta, 5-alpha, 6-beta-triol and lyso-sphingomyelin 509 (LSM 509).

 

A normal result in dried blood spots does not rule out Niemann-Pick type C.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. OMIM: 257220 Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C1; NPC1. Updated May 26, 2020. Accessed February 3, 2021. Available at www.omim.org/entry/257220?search=257220&highlight=257220

2. OMIM: 257200 Niemann-Pick Disease Type A. Updated October 19, 2016. Accessed February 3, 2021. Available at www.omim.org/entry/257200?search=257200&highlight=257200

3. OMIM: 607616 Niemann-Pick Disease Type B. Updated April 4, 2019. Accessed February 3, 2021. Available at www.omim.org/entry/607616?search=607616&highlight=607616

4. Wasserstein MP, Schuchman EH: Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2006. Updated June 18, 2015. Accessed November 2, 2020. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1370/

5. Patterson MC, Vanier MT, Suzuki K, et al: Niemann-Pick disease type C: a lipid trafficking disorder. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed November 2, 2020. Available at ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225545907&bookid=2709

6. Gal AE, Brady RO, Hibbert SR, Pentchev PG: A practical chromogenic procedure for the detection of homozygotes and heterozygous carriers of Niemann-Pick disease. N Engl J Med. 1975 Sep 25;293(13):632-636

7. Patterson M: Niemann-Pick disease type C. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2000. Updated December 10, 2020. Accessed February 3, 2021. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1296/

8. Schuchman EH: The pathogenesis and treatment of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient Niemann-Pick disease. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;47(Suppl 1):S48-S57

9. Hollack CEM, de Sonnaville ESV, Cassiman D et al: Acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) deficiency patients in The Netherlands and Belgium: disease spectrum and natural course in attenuated patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2012 Nov;107(3):526-533

10. Geberhiwot T, Moro A, Dardis A, et al; International Niemann-Pick Disease Registry (INPDR): Consensus clinical management guidelines for Niemann-Pick disease type C. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018 Apr 6;13(1):50

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

A 3-mm dried blood spot is extracted with internal standard. The extract is subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The MS/MS is operated in the multiple reaction monitoring positive mode to follow the precursor to product species transitions for each analyte and internal standard. The ratio of the extracted peak areas to internal standard is determined by LC-MS/MS is used to calculate the concentration of in the sample.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 9 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Normal result: 2 months; Abnormal result: Indefinitely

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82542

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
OXYBS Oxysterols, BS 92741-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
36760 Cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol 92757-4
36761 Lyso-sphingomyelin 92749-1
36762 Interpretation (OXYBS) 59462-2
36763 Reviewed By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports