Test Catalog

Test Id : CALR

CALR Mutation Analysis, Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN), Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Rapid and sensitive detection of insertion and deletion-type mutations in exon 9 of CALR

 

An aid in distinction between reactive thrombocytosis and leukocytosis versus a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), especially essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and is highly informative in cases in which JAK2 and MPL testing are negative

 

Especially helpful to the pathologist in those bone marrow cases with ambiguous etiology of thrombocytosis, equivocal bone marrow morphologic findings of MPN, and unexplained reticulin fibrosis

 

An aid in prognostication of PMF and thrombosis risk assessment in ET

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Fragment Analysis

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

MPN, CALR Gene Mutation, Exon 9

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Calreticulin

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN)

Myeloproliferative Disorder

Essential Thrombocythemia

Primary Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis

JAK2-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasm

CALR

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen must arrive within 7 days (168 hours) of collection.

Necessary Information

The following information is required:

1. Pertinent clinical history

2. Clinical or morphologic suspicion

3. Date of collection

4. Specimen source

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
MP020 Specimen

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Peripheral blood

Container/Tube: EDTA (lavender top) or ACD-B (yellow top)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

3. Label specimen as blood.

Specimen Stability: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerate

 

Specimen Type: Bone marrow

Container/Tube: EDTA (lavender top) or ACD-B (yellow top)

Specimen Volume: 2 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix bone marrow.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

3. Label specimen as bone marrow.

Specimen Stability: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerate

 

Specimen Type: Extracted DNA from blood or bone marrow

Container/Tube: 1.5- to 2-mL tube

Specimen Volume: Entire specimen

Collection Instructions: Label specimen as extracted DNA from blood or bone marrow and include indication of volume and concentration of the DNA.

Specimen Stability: Frozen (preferred)/Refrigerate/Ambient

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. Hematopathology Patient Information (T676) in Special Instructions

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Hematopathology/Cytogenetics Test Request (T726) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Other Paraffin-embedded bone marrow aspirate clot Bone marrow biopsies, slides, or paraffin shavings Moderately to severely clotted

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies (preferred) 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Rapid and sensitive detection of insertion and deletion-type mutations in exon 9 of CALR

 

An aid in distinction between reactive thrombocytosis and leukocytosis versus a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), especially essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and is highly informative in cases in which JAK2 and MPL testing are negative

 

Especially helpful to the pathologist in those bone marrow cases with ambiguous etiology of thrombocytosis, equivocal bone marrow morphologic findings of MPN, and unexplained reticulin fibrosis

 

An aid in prognostication of PMF and thrombosis risk assessment in ET

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The most frequent genetic mutation in BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is the JAK2V617F mutation, which is present in approximately 50% to 60% of patients. It serves as a confirmatory molecular marker of these diseases. Mutations in the MPL gene are found in an additional 5% to 10% of ET and PMF cases. It was recently discovered that somatic mutation (insertions and deletions) in exon 9 of the CALR gene is the second most frequent somatic mutation after JAK2 in ET and PMF patients, and it is mutually exclusive of JAK2 and MPL mutations.(1,2) It has a frequency of approximately 49% to 88% in JAK2 and MPL-wild type (WT) ET and PMF, and is not found in polycythemia vera (PV) patients.(1-4) Therefore, CALR mutation serves as an important diagnostic molecular marker in ET and PMF.

 

The CALR gene encodes for calreticulin, a multifunctional protein with a C-terminus rich in acidic amino acids and a KDEL ER-retention motif. All the pathologic CALR mutations reported to date are out-of-frame insertion and/or deletions (indel) in exon 9, generating a 1 base-pair (bp) frame shift and a mutant protein with a novel C-terminus rich in basic amino acids and loss of the KDEL ER-retention signal. The most common mutation types are 52-bp deletion (c.1092_1143del, L367fs*46) and 5-bp insertion (c.1154_1155insTTGCC, K385fs*47), and they comprise approximately 85% of CALR mutations in MPN.(1,2) CALR mutations have been found in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in MPN patients(2) and may activate the STAT5 signaling pathway.(1) They are associated with decreased risk of thrombosis in ET (1,3-5), and better survival in PMF compared to JAK2 mutations.(5)

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be issued.

 

The results will be reported as 1 of the 3 states if DNA amplification is successful (see Cautions): 

-Positive. A deletion/insertion-type mutation was detected in CALR, exon 9.

-Negative. No deletion or insertion was detected in CALR, exon 9.

-Equivocal. A small amplicon suspicious for a deletion/insertion type mutation was detected in CALR, exon 9.

 

Positive mutation status is highly suggestive of a myeloid neoplasm, but must be correlated with clinical and other laboratory and morphologic features for definitive diagnosis.

 

Negative mutation status does not exclude the presence of a myeloproliferative neoplasm or other neoplastic disorders.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A positive result is not specific for a particular myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation is necessary in all cases.

 

A negative result does not exclude the presence of a MPN or other neoplastic process.

 

This test is a fragment analysis assay, and only detects insertions and deletions (indels). It will not detect point mutations. However, all reported pathologic mutations in MPN described to date are insertions and/or deletions.

 

This test may not differentiate between out-of-frame and in-frame indels in rare cases. However, in-frame indel mutations are very rare (<0.5%), and have only been reported in few healthy individuals and myeloproliferative neoplasm patients with JAK2V617F mutation or out-of-frame CALR mutation. Most of the rare in-frame indels are considered germline mutations and represent non-pathogenic polymorphisms.

 

Infrequently, amplification failure can be encountered in a given sample, due to inadequate DNA, poor DNA quality, or a PCR inhibitor. In these circumstances, the assay will be reattempted and if persistently unsuccessful, the report will be issued with an "Invalid" result.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Klampfl T, Gisslinger H, Harutyunyan AS, et al: Somatic mutation of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms. N Engl J Med 2013;369:2379-90

2. Nangalia J, Massie CE, Baxter EJ, et al: Somatic CALR mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. N Engl J Med 2013;369:2391-2405

3. Rumi E, Pietra D, Ferretti V, et al: JAK2 or CALR mutation status defines subtypes of essential thrombocythemia with substantially different clinical course and outcomes. Blood 2014 Mar 6;123(10):1544-1551

4. Rotunno G, Mannarelli C, Guglielmelli P, et al: Impact of calreticulin mutations on clinical and hematological phenotype and outcome in essential thrombocythemia. Blood 2014;123(10):1552-1555

5. Tefferi A, Lasho TL, Finke CM, et al: CALR vs JAK2 vs MPL-mutated or triple-negative myelofibrosis: clinical, cytogenetic and molecular comparisons. Leukemia 2014 Jul;28(7):1472-1477

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

PCR amplification of CALR exon 9 is performed on DNA isolated from the patient sample. The PCR product is then run on an ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer for fragment analysis to detect insertions and deletions. An unmutated CALR will show an amplicon at 266 bp, a mutated CALR with insertion will show an amplicon greater than 266 bp, and a mutated CALR with deletion will show an amplicon smaller than 266 bp. This assay has an analytical sensitivity of approximately 6% (ie, 6 mutation-containing cells in 100 total cells) in most mutation types, except for the rare type of 1-bp deletion, which has a sensitivity of approximately 20%. This is a laboratory developed test using analyte-specific reagents and research use only (RUO) reagents.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

DNA 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81219-CALR (calreticulin) (eg, myeloproliferative disorders), gene analysis, common variants in exon 9

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CALR MPN, CALR Gene Mutation, Exon 9 77174-1
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
36301 Final Diagnosis 22637-3
MP020 Specimen 31208-2

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports