Test Catalog

Test Id : AHUGP

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS)/Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) /Complement 3 Glomerulopathy (C3G) Gene Panel, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Providing a genetic evaluation for patients with a personal or family history suggestive of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), or complement 3 glomerulopathy (C3G)

 

Establishing a diagnosis of genetic aHUS, TMA, or C3G and, in some cases, allowing for appropriate management and surveillance for disease features based on the gene involved

 

Identifying variants in genes encoding complement alternate pathway components and specific coagulation pathway genes known to be associated with increased risk for aHUS, TMA, and C3G allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

 

Providing genetic information that may be considered when making treatment decisions, including duration of therapy and recurrence risk, as well as consideration of transplantation

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test utilizes next-generation sequencing to detect single nucleotide, small deletion-insertion, and copy number variants in 15 genes associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and complement 3 glomerulopathy (C3G): ADAMTS13, C3, C5[Chr9(GRCh37):g.123759950-123759973 only], CD46 (MCP), CFB, CFH, CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4, CFHR5, CFI, DGKE, MMACHC, and THBD. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Thrombotic Microangiopathy / Complement 3 Glomerulopathy Gene Panel in Method Description for additional details.

 

Identification of a pathogenic variant may assist with diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, familial screening, and genetic counseling for aHUS, TMA, and C3G.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Sequence Capture and Amplicon-Based Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

aHUS/TMA/C3G Gene Panel

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

ADAMTS13

aHUS

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

C3

C3G

C3 glomerulopathy

CD46

CFB

CFH

CFHR1

CFHR5

CFI

CM-TMA

Complement 3 glomerulopathy

Complement factor B deficiency

Complement factor H deficiency

Complement factor I deficiency

Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy

Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

DGKE

Eculizumab discontinuation

Familial thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Membrane cofactor protein

MCP

Nephrotic syndrome

NextGen Sequencing Test

Thrombotic microangiopathy

TMA

TTP

Upshaw-Schulman syndrome

USS

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

Due to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome genotype-phenotype complexity, targeted testing for familial variants will not be accepted without approval from the laboratory. Please call 800-533-1710 and to discuss with a genetic counselor.

 

Customization of this panel and single gene analysis for any gene present on this panel are available. For more information, see CGPH / Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin. Tubes of culture media can be supplied upon request (Eagle's minimum essential medium with 1% penicillin and streptomycin).

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch 

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing, Tissue. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured fibroblast cells from a skin biopsy from another laboratory. Cultured cells from a prenatal specimen will not be accepted.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated (<24 hours)

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing, Tissue. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Hereditary Renal Genetic Testing Patient Information (T918)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL; Skin biopsy or cultured fibroblasts: See Specimen Required

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Providing a genetic evaluation for patients with a personal or family history suggestive of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), or complement 3 glomerulopathy (C3G)

 

Establishing a diagnosis of genetic aHUS, TMA, or C3G and, in some cases, allowing for appropriate management and surveillance for disease features based on the gene involved

 

Identifying variants in genes encoding complement alternate pathway components and specific coagulation pathway genes known to be associated with increased risk for aHUS, TMA, and C3G allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

 

Providing genetic information that may be considered when making treatment decisions, including duration of therapy and recurrence risk, as well as consideration of transplantation

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test utilizes next-generation sequencing to detect single nucleotide, small deletion-insertion, and copy number variants in 15 genes associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and complement 3 glomerulopathy (C3G): ADAMTS13, C3, C5[Chr9(GRCh37):g.123759950-123759973 only], CD46 (MCP), CFB, CFH, CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4, CFHR5, CFI, DGKE, MMACHC, and THBD. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Thrombotic Microangiopathy / Complement 3 Glomerulopathy Gene Panel in Method Description for additional details.

 

Identification of a pathogenic variant may assist with diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, familial screening, and genetic counseling for aHUS, TMA, and C3G.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a pathologic condition characterized by abnormalities in the walls of small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) that result in microvascular thrombosis. Typically, they feature microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia, but these features may not be apparent in kidney-limited disease. Laboratory findings may include anemia, thrombocytopenia, presence of schistocytes on peripheral smear, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and elevated serum creatinine.(1,2) The main categories of TMA include complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (CM-TMA; also known as atypical hemolytic syndrome [aHUS]), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome, and drug-induced TMA. Due to the overlapping clinical features, laboratory testing is useful in differentiated these disorders.(3)

 

CM-TMA (aHUS) is a well-recognized disease entity characterized by complement activation in the microvasculature. Abnormalities of the alternate pathway of complement, which may be inherited (genetic) or acquired, underlie both the sporadic and familial forms of the disease and are identified in approximately 60% of patients.(3,4) Unlike many other monogenic disorders of the immune system, multiple hits may be required for disease manifestation, which may include a trigger event (transplantation, pregnancy, malignant hypertension, autoimmune disorders, sepsis, malignancy, etc) and one or more contributing genetic variants or risk haplotypes in the alternate pathway complement genes.(3) Individuals with genetic CM-TMA (aHUS) may experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode.

 

TTP is a rare clinical entity but is important to diagnose properly since it is associated with very high mortality (90%) if untreated. Mortality can be reduced by early plasma exchange. Congenital TTP is due to genetic defects in the ADAMTS13 gene, while acquired TTP is related to autoantibodies against ADAMTS13, which reduces function. While TTP was initially characterized by thrombocytopenia, MAHA, fluctuating neurological signs, kidney failure and fever, not all of these features may be present in the manifestation of the disease.(1,2)

 

The hereditary form of CM-TMA is characterized by the presence of disease-causing variants in one or more of the genes known to be associated with aHUS, irrespective of familial history, or when two or more members of the same family are affected by the disease at least 6 months apart and exposure to a common triggering infectious agent has been excluded.(3) A patient may have both genetic variants in the alternative complement pathway and autoantibodies. While genetic testing may be used during the diagnostic work-up, the presence of disease-causing variants may also alter recurrence risk and impact decisions related to continuation of anti-complement therapy after resolution of symptoms.

 

Complement 3 glomerulopathies (C3G) include dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis and are characterized by C3 deposition within the glomeruli. In these disorders, the activity of the C3 convertase is increased by C3 nephritic factors, which are antibodies that stabilize the convertase, or loss of complement regulator activity, which may be due to genetic variants, autoantibodies, or other immunoglobulins. C3G may be preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection in some cases. Patients typically have proteinuria or hematuria and may present with variable kidney impairment. In addition to medical therapy, patients may be treated with kidney transplantation; however, disease recurrence and graft loss may occur.

 

It is important to note that while TMA and C3G are associated with complement dysregulation, disease-causing variants in these genes may also result in complement deficiency, which is associated with recurrent infections with encapsulated pathogens or connective tissue diseases with no evidence of aHUS/TMA.(5)

 

Two risk alleles associated with increased susceptibility to aHUS/TMA and variants in C5 associated with poor response to anticomplement therapy are also included on this panel to aid in risk assessment:

 

-CFH-H3 Risk Haplotype: The variants that comprise this risk haplotype are common in the general population, but in the context of additional pathogenic genetic and environmental factors, the presence of this risk haplotype is associated with an increased risk for development or progression of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. (6)

-MCP/CD46 Risk Haplotype: The variants that comprise this risk haplotype are common in the general population, but in the context of additional pathogenic genetic and environmental factors, the presence of this risk haplotype is associated with an increased risk for development or progression of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.6)

-C5 Genotype: Two variants, p.Arg885His and p.Arg885Cys, have been associated with poor response to eculizumab.(7)

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected variants are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations.(8) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Clinical Correlations:

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Misinterpretation of results may occur if the information provided is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

If testing was performed because of a clinically significant family history, it is often useful to first test an affected family member. Detection of a reportable variant in an affected family member would allow for more informative testing of at-risk individuals.

 

To discuss the availability of additional testing options or for assistance in the interpretation of these results, contact the Mayo Clinic Laboratories genetic counselors at 800-533-1710.

 

Technical Limitations:

Next-generation sequencing may not detect all types of genomic variants. In rare cases, false-negative or false-positive results may occur. The depth of coverage may be variable for some target regions; assay performance below the minimum acceptable criteria or for failed regions will be noted. Given these limitations, negative results do not rule out the diagnosis of a genetic disorder. If a specific clinical disorder is suspected, evaluation by alternative methods can be considered.

 

There may be regions of genes that cannot be effectively evaluated by sequencing or deletion and duplication analysis as a result of technical limitations of the assay, including regions of homology, high guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and repetitive sequences. Confirmation of select reportable variants will be performed by alternate methodologies based on internal laboratory criteria.

 

This test is validated to detect 95% of deletions up to 75 base pairs (bp) and insertions up to 47 bp. Deletions-insertions (delins) of 40 or more bp, including mobile element insertions, may be less reliably detected than smaller delins.

 

Deletion/Duplication Analysis:

This analysis targets single and multi-exon deletions/duplications; however, in some instances single exon resolution cannot be achieved due to isolated reduction in sequence coverage or inherent genomic complexity. Balanced structural rearrangements (such as translocations and inversions), including hybrid alleles formed between CFH and CFHR genes, may not be detected.

 

This test is not designed to detect low levels of mosaicism or to differentiate between somatic and germline variants. If there is a possibility that any detected variant is somatic, additional testing may be necessary to clarify the significance of results.

 

Genes may be added or removed based on updated clinical relevance. Refer to the Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Thrombotic Microangiopathy / Complement 3 Glomerulopathy Gene Panel for the most up to date list of genes included in this test. For detailed information regarding gene specific performance and technical limitations, see Method Description or contact a laboratory Genetic Counselor.

 

If the patient has had an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant or a recent blood transfusion, results may be inaccurate due to the presence of donor DNA. Call Mayo Clinic Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Reclassification of Variants:

At this time, it is not standard practice for the laboratory to systematically review previously classified variants on a regular basis. The laboratory encourages health care providers to contact the laboratory at any time to learn how the classification of a particular variant may have changed over time.

 

Variant Evaluation:

Evaluation and categorization of variants are performed using published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology recommendations as a guideline.(8) Other gene-specific guidelines may also be considered. Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance. Variants classified as benign or likely benign are not reported.

 

Multiple in silico evaluation tools may be used to assist in the interpretation of these results. The accuracy of predictions made by in silico evaluation tools is highly dependent upon the data available for a given gene, and periodic updates to these tools may cause predictions to change over time. Results from in silico evaluation tools are interpreted with caution and professional clinical judgement.

 

Rarely, incidental findings or secondary findings may implicate another predisposition or presence of active disease. Incidental findings may include, but are not limited to, results related to the sex chromosomes. These findings will be carefully reviewed to determine whether they will be reported.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. George JN, Nester CM: Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug 14;371(7):1654-1666

2. Go RS, Winters JL, Leung N, et al: Thrombotic microangiopathy care pathway: A consensus statement for the Mayo Clinic Complement Alternative Pathway-Thrombotic Microangiopathy (CAP-TMA) Disease-Oriented Group. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016 Sep;91(9):1189-1211

3. Noris M, Bresin E, Mele C, Remuzzi G: Genetic atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2007. Updated September 23, 2021. Accessed June 7, 2022. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1367/

4. Kavanagh D, Goodship TH. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, genetic basis, and clinical manifestations. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2011:15-20. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2011.1.15

5. Picard C, Gaspar HB, Al-Herz W, et al: International Union of Immunological Societies: 2017 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Committee report on inborn errors of immunity. J Clin Immunol. 2018 Jan;38(1):96-128

6. Bernabeu-Herrero ME, Jimenez-Alcazar M, Anter J, et al. Complement factor H, FHR-3 and FHR-1 variants associate in an extended haplotype conferring increased risk of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Mol Immunol. 2015;67(2 Pt B):276-286. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.06.021

7. Nishimura J, Yamamoto M, Hayashi S, et al. Genetic variants in C5 and poor response to eculizumab. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 13;370(7):632-639 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311084

8. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Capture-based and amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) are performed to test for the presence of variants in coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the genes analyzed, as well as other regions that have known disease-causing variants. The human genome reference GRCh37/hg19 build was used for sequence read alignment. At least 99% of the bases are covered at a read depth over 30X. Sensitivity is estimated at above 99% for single nucleotide variants, above 94% for deletions-insertions (delins) less than 40 base pairs (bp), above 95% for deletions up to 75 bp and insertions up to 47 bp. NGS based quantitative method is performed to test for the presence of deletions and duplications in the genes analyzed.

 

There may be regions of genes that cannot be effectively evaluated by sequencing or deletion and duplication analysis as a result of technical limitations of the assay, including regions of homology, high guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and repetitive sequences. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Thrombotic Microangiopathy / Complement 3 Glomerulopathy Gene Panel for details regarding the targeted genes analyzed for each test and specific gene regions not routinely covered.(Unpublished Mayo method)

 

Confirmation of select reportable variants may be performed by alternate methodologies based on internal laboratory criteria.

 

Genes analyzed: ADAMTS13, C3, C5 [Chr9(GRCh37):g.123759950-123759973 only],CD46 (MCP), CFB, CFH, CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4, CFHR5, CFI, DGKE, MMACHC, THBD

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

Supplemental

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

28 to 42 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole blood: 2 weeks (if available); Extracted DNA: 3 months; Cultured fibroblasts: 1 month

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81404

81479

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
AHUGP aHUS/TMA/C3G Gene Panel 99967-2
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
618017 Test Description 62364-5
618018 Specimen 31208-2
618019 Source 31208-2
618020 Result Summary 50397-9
618021 Result 82939-0
618022 Interpretation 69047-9
618023 Additional Results In Process
618024 Resources 99622-3
618025 Additional Information 48767-8
618026 Method 85069-3
618027 Genes Analyzed 48018-6
618028 Disclaimer 62364-5
618029 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports