Test Catalog

Test Id : ALCU

Aluminum/Creatinine Ratio, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Measurement of aluminum concentration as a part of aluminum exposure

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Only orderable as part of a profile. For more information see ALUCR / Aluminum/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine.

 

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Aluminum/Creat Ratio, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Aluminum

TESTINGPUSH

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Only orderable as part of a profile. For more information see ALUCR / Aluminum/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine.

 

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metal tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine collection container

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic urine tube or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a random urine specimen.

2. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.7 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Ambient 28 days
Frozen 28 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Measurement of aluminum concentration as a part of aluminum exposure

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Under normal physiologic conditions, the usual daily dietary intake of aluminum (5-10 mg) is completely eliminated. Excretion is accomplished by avid filtration of aluminum from the blood by the glomeruli of the kidney. Patients in kidney failure lose the ability to clear aluminum and are candidates for aluminum toxicity. Many factors increase the incidence of aluminum toxicity in patients with kidney failure:

-Aluminum-laden dialysis water can expose dialysis patients to aluminum.

-Aluminum-laden albumin can expose patients to an aluminum burden they cannot eliminate.

-The dialysis process is not highly effective at eliminating aluminum.

-Aluminum-based phosphate binder gels are administered orally to minimize phosphate accumulation; a small fraction of this aluminum may be absorbed and accumulated.

 

If it is not removed by kidney filtration, aluminum accumulates in the blood where it binds to proteins such as albumin and is rapidly distributed through the body. Aluminum overload leads to accumulation of aluminum at 2 sites: brain and bone. Brain deposition has been implicated as a cause of dialysis dementia. In bone, aluminum replaces calcium at the mineralization front, disrupting normal osteoid formation.

 

Urine aluminum concentrations are likely to be increased above the reference range in patients with metallic joint prosthesis. Prosthetic devices produced by Zimmer Company and Johnson and Johnson typically are made of aluminum, vanadium, and titanium. This list of products is incomplete, and these products change occasionally; see prosthesis product information for each device for composition details.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Only orderable as part of a profile. For more information see ALUCR / Aluminum/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine.

 

Not applicable

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Daily excretion more than 10 mcg/24 hours indicates exposure to aluminum.

 

Prosthesis wear is known to result in increased circulating concentration of metal ions.(1) Modest increase (10-20 mcg/24 hours) in urine aluminum concentration is likely to be associated with a prosthetic device in good condition. Urine concentrations more than 50 mcg/24 hours in a patient with an aluminum-based implant, not undergoing dialysis, suggest significant prosthesis wear. Increased urine trace element concentrations in the absence of corroborating clinical information do not independently predict prosthesis wear or failure.

 

In kidney failure, the ability of the kidney to excrete aluminum decreases, while the exposure to aluminum increases (aluminum-laden dialysis water, aluminum-laden albumin, and aluminum-laden phosphate binders).

 

Patients receiving chelation therapy with desferrioxamine (for iron- or aluminum-overload states) also excrete considerably more aluminum in their urine than normal.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Falsely increased results may be obtained if the specimen is collected in nonacid-washed polypropylene collection vessels or if metal caps are used to seal the container. Preanalytical steps (specimen collection and transport) are the most likely processes that can affect the quality of trace metals analysis in clinical samples. Specimens must be collected and processed following these instructions: Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Liu TK, Liu SH, Chang CH, Yang RS: Concentration of metal elements in the blood and urine in the patients with cementless total knee arthroplasty. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1998;185:253-262

2. O'Shea S, Johnson DW: Review article: Addressing risk factors in chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder: Can we influence patient-level outcomes? Nephrology. 2009;14:416-427

3. Meyer-Baron M, Schuper M, Knapp G, van Thriel C: Occupational aluminum exposure: Evidence in support of its neurobehavioral impact. NeuroToxicology. 2007;28:1068-1078

4.Strathmann FG, Blum LM: Toxic elements In: Rifai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:888-924

5. US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. HHS; 2006. Accessed July 20, 2021. Available at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp22.pdf

6. Willhite CC, Karyakina NA, Yokel RA, et al: Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide, and its soluble salts. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014;44 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):1-80. doi: 10.3109/10408444.2014.934439

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Aluminum in serum and urine is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dynamic reaction cell mode using lithium, gallium, and rhodium as internal standards, and a salt matrix calibration.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82108

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
ALCU Aluminum/Creat Ratio, U 13470-0
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
610839 Aluminum/Creat Ratio, U 13470-0

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports