Test Catalog

Test Id : ASOU

Arsenic Occupational Exposure, Random, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening test for detection of occupational exposure to arsenic in random urine specimens

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total arsenic concentration is 10 mcg/L or greater, then speciation will be performed at an additional charge.

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Only orderable as part of profile. For more information see:

-ASUOE / Arsenic Occupational Exposure with Reflex, Random, Urine

-HMUOE / Heavy Metal Occupational Exposure, with Reflex, Random, Urine

 

Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Arsenic Occupational Exposure

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Arsenic (As)

As (Arsenic)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total arsenic concentration is 10 mcg/L or greater, then speciation will be performed at an additional charge.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Only orderable as part of profile. For more information see:

-ASUOE / Arsenic Occupational Exposure with Reflex, Random, Urine

-HMUOE / Heavy Metal Occupational Exposure, with Reflex, Random, Urine

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

3 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Frozen 28 days
Ambient 72 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Screening test for detection of occupational exposure to arsenic in random urine specimens

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If total arsenic concentration is 10 mcg/L or greater, then speciation will be performed at an additional charge.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Arsenic is classified chemically as a metalloid, having properties of both a metal and a nonmetal. Elemental arsenic is a steel grey solid material. However, arsenic is usually found in the environment combined with other elements such as oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur. Arsenic combined with these elements is called inorganic arsenic. Arsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen is referred to as organic arsenic. The organic forms (eg, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine) are relatively nontoxic, while the inorganic forms are toxic. The toxic inorganic forms are arsenite (As[3+]/As[III]) and arsenate (As[5+]/As[V]). Inorganic As(V) is readily reduced to inorganic As(III), which is then primarily broken down to the less toxic methylated metabolites monomethylarsinic acid and subsequently dimethylarsinic acid.

 

In the past, inorganic arsenic compounds were predominantly used as pesticides, primarily on cotton fields and in orchards. Inorganic arsenic compounds can no longer be used in agriculture. However, organic arsenic compounds, namely cacodylic acid, disodium methylarsenate, and monosodium methylarsenate, are still used as pesticides, principally on cotton. Some organic arsenic compounds are used as additives in animal feed. Small quantities of elemental arsenic are also added to other metals to form metal mixtures or alloys with improved properties. The greatest use of arsenic in alloys is in lead-acid batteries for automobiles. Another important use of arsenic compounds is in semiconductors and light-emitting diodes.

 

People are exposed to arsenic by eating food, drinking water, or breathing air. Of these, food is usually the largest source of arsenic. The predominant dietary source of arsenic is seafood, followed by rice/rice cereal, mushrooms, and poultry. While seafood contains the greatest amounts of arsenic, from fish and shellfish, this is mostly in an organic form of arsenic called arsenobetaine, which is much less harmful. Some seaweed may contain arsenic in the inorganic form, which is more toxic. In the United States, some areas also contain high natural levels of arsenic in rock, which can lead to elevated levels in the soil and drinking water. Occupational (eg, copper or lead smelting, wood treating, or pesticide application) exposure is another source where people may be introduced to elevated levels of arsenic. Lastly, hazardous waste sites may contain large quantities of arsenic and, if not disposed of properly, may get into the surrounding water, air, or soil.

 

A wide range of signs and symptoms may be seen in acute arsenic poisoning including headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypotension, fever, hemolysis, seizures, and mental status changes. Symptoms of chronic poisoning, also called arseniasis, are mostly insidious and nonspecific. The gastrointestinal tract, skin, and central nervous system are usually involved. Nausea, epigastric pain, colic abdominal pain, diarrhea, and paresthesias of the hands and feet can also occur.

 

Since arsenic is excreted predominantly by glomerular filtration, measurement of arsenic in urine is the most reliable means of detecting arsenic exposures within the last several days.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Only orderable as part of profile. For more information see:

-ASUOE / Arsenic Occupational Exposure with Reflex, Random, Urine

-HMUOE / Heavy Metal Occupational Exposure, with Reflex, Random, Urine

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Mayo Clinic uses the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure index (BEI) as the reference value. The BEI is the sum of all the toxic species (inorganic arsenic plus methylated arsenic metabolites).

 

Physiologically, arsenic exists in a number of toxic and nontoxic forms. The total arsenic concentration reflects all the arsenic present in the sample regardless of species (eg, inorganic vs. methylated vs. organic arsenic). The measurement of urinary total arsenic levels is generally accepted as the most reliable indicator of recent arsenic exposure. However, if the total urine arsenic concentration is elevated, arsenic speciation must be performed to identify if it is the toxic forms (eg, inorganic and methylated arsenic forms) or the relatively nontoxic organic forms (eg, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine).

 

The inorganic toxic forms of arsenic (eg, As[III] and As[V]) are found in the urine shortly after ingestion, whereas the less toxic methylated forms, monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are the species that predominate longer than 24 hours after ingestion. In general, urinary As(III) and As(V) concentrations peak in the urine at approximately 10 hours and return to normal 20 to 30 hours after ingestion. Urinary MMA and DMA concentrations normally peak at approximately 40 to 60 hours and return to baseline 6 to 20 days after ingestion.

 

This test can determine if a patient has been exposed to above-average levels of arsenic. It cannot predict whether the arsenic levels in their body will affect their health.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Consumption of seafood before collection of a urine specimen for arsenic testing is likely to result in a report of an elevated concentration of arsenic found in the urine, which can be clinically misleading.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Fillol CC, Dor F, Labat L, et al: Urinary arsenic concentrations and speciation in residents living in an area with naturally contaminated soils. Sci Total Environ. 2010 Feb 1;408(5):1190-1194

2. Caldwell KL, Jones RL, Verdon CP, Jarrett JM, Caudill SP, Osterloh JD: Levels of urinary total and speciated arsenic in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009 Jan;19(1):59-68

3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Toxicological profile for arsenic. US Department of Health and Human Services; August 2007. Available at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp2.pdf

4. Strathmann FG, Blum LM: Toxic elements. In: Rifai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 42

5. Keil DE, Berger-Ritchie J, McMillin GA: Testing for toxic elements: A focus on arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Lab Med. 2011 Dec;42(12):735-742 doi: 10.1309/LMYKGU05BEPE7IAW

6. Navas-Acien A, Francesconi KA, Silbergeld EK, Guallar E: Seafood intake and urine concentrations of total arsenic, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine in the US population. Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):110-118 doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2010.10.009

7. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Udensi UK, et al: State of the science review of the health effects of inorganic arsenic: Perspectives for future research. Environ Toxicol. 2019 Feb;34(2):188-202 doi: 10.1002/tox.22673

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Arsenic is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in MS/MS mode. Oxygen is used to shift arsenic m/z 75 to m/z 91 which is free of argon polyatomic ions. Internal standard used is gallium. A salt matrix calibration is used.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 day

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
ASOU Arsenic Occupational Exposure 13463-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
608890 Arsenic Occupational Exposure 13463-5
608891 Total Arsenic Concentration 5586-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports