Test Catalog

Test Id : HAEV1

Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of lifelong or inherited hemolytic anemias, including red cell membrane disorders, unstable or abnormal hemoglobin variants, and red cell enzyme disorders

 

This evaluation is not suitable for acquired causes of hemolysis.

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
HAEVI Hemolytic Anemia Interpretation No Yes
HGBCE Hb Variant, A2 and F Quantitation,B Yes Yes
HPLC HPLC Hb Variant, B No Yes
UNHB Hb Stability, B No Yes
FRAGO Osmotic Fragility Yes, Bill Only Yes
SCTRL Shipping Control Vial No Yes
BND3 Band 3 Fluorescence Staining, RBC No Yes
G6PDC G6PD Enzyme Activity, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
PKC PK Enzyme Activity, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
GPIC Glucose Phosphate Isomerase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
HKC Hexokinase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
AKC Adenylate Kinase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
PFKC Phosphofructokinase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
PGKC Phosphoglycerate Kinase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
TPIC Triosephosphate Isomerase, B Yes, Bill Only Yes
GSH Glutathione, B Yes Yes
P5NT Pyrimidine 5' Nucleotidase, B Yes Yes
PBSM Morphology Review No Yes

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
SDEX Sickle Solubility, B Yes No
IEF Isoelectric Focusing, B No No
MASS Hb Variant by Mass Spec, B No No
HPFH Hb F Distribution, B No No
ATHAL Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis Yes No
WASQR Alpha Globin Gene Sequencing, B Yes, Bill Only No
WBSQR Beta Globin Gene Sequencing, B Yes, Bill Only No
WBDDR Beta Globin Cluster Locus Del/Dup,B Yes, Bill Only No
WGSQR Gamma Globin Full Gene Sequencing Yes, Bill Only No
HAEV0 Hemolytic Anemia Summary Interp No No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This is a consultative evaluation in which the case will be evaluated, and appropriate tests performed at an additional charge, and the results interpreted. If a peripheral blood smear is provided, the morphologic features will be incorporated into the interpretation.

 

Red blood cell enzymes will always be performed. Capillary electrophoresis, cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and hemoglobin stability studies will always be performed. Reflex testing required to positively identify a hemoglobin abnormality may be added as the case requires. Osmotic fragility (OF) and eosin-5-maleimide binding band 3 flow cytometry will be performed on all cases. A normal shipping control for OF is necessary to exclude false-positive results due to preanalytic artifact.

 

The protein and molecular test results will be released separately which may result in incomplete data until all testing has been finalized.

 

One or more of the following molecular tests may be reflexed on this test:

-ATHAL / Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis, Varies

-WASQR / Alpha-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBSQR / Beta-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBDDR / Beta-Globin Cluster Locus Deletion/Duplication, Blood

-WGSQR / Gamma-Globin Full Gene Sequencing, Varies

 

An additional comprehensive consultative interpretation that summarizes all results will be provided after all tests are completed to incorporate results into an overall evaluation.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

HAEVI, HAEV0: Medical Interpretation

HGBCE: Capillary Electrophoresis

HPLC: Cation Exchange/High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

UNHB: Isopropanol and Heat Stability

FRAGO: Osmotic Lysis

BND3: Flow Cytometry

G6PDC, PKC, GPIC, HKC, AKC, PFKC, PGKC, TPIC, GSH, P5NT: Kinetic Spectrophotometry (KS)

PBSM: Consultant Review

MASS: Mass Spectrometry (MS)

HPFH: Flow Cytometry

IEF: Isoelectric Focusing

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Band3

EMA binding

Eosin

Eosin 5 maleimide

Hemoglobinopathy

Hemolysis

Hemolytic Anemia

Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis

Hereditary spherocytosis

Hyperbilirubinemia

Neonatal anemia

Neonatal hemolysis

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

RBC enzyme

RBC membrane

Unstable hemoglobin

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This is a consultative evaluation in which the case will be evaluated, and appropriate tests performed at an additional charge, and the results interpreted. If a peripheral blood smear is provided, the morphologic features will be incorporated into the interpretation.

 

Red blood cell enzymes will always be performed. Capillary electrophoresis, cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and hemoglobin stability studies will always be performed. Reflex testing required to positively identify a hemoglobin abnormality may be added as the case requires. Osmotic fragility (OF) and eosin-5-maleimide binding band 3 flow cytometry will be performed on all cases. A normal shipping control for OF is necessary to exclude false-positive results due to preanalytic artifact.

 

The protein and molecular test results will be released separately which may result in incomplete data until all testing has been finalized.

 

One or more of the following molecular tests may be reflexed on this test:

-ATHAL / Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis, Varies

-WASQR / Alpha-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBSQR / Beta-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBDDR / Beta-Globin Cluster Locus Deletion/Duplication, Blood

-WGSQR / Gamma-Globin Full Gene Sequencing, Varies

 

An additional comprehensive consultative interpretation that summarizes all results will be provided after all tests are completed to incorporate results into an overall evaluation.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Control

Whole Blood ACD-B

Whole Blood EDTA

Whole Blood Slide

Ordering Guidance

Preliminary screening tests, such as complete blood cell count with peripheral smear and direct Coombs test with a negative result, should be run before ordering this evaluation.

 

Cold agglutinin disorders and autoimmune disorders should be excluded prior to testing. This evaluation is not suitable for acquired causes of hemolysis.

Shipping Instructions

Specimens must arrive within 72 hours of collection.

Necessary Information

Include recent transfusion information.

 

Include most recent complete blood cell count results.

 

Metabolic Hematology Patient Information (T810) is strongly recommended. Testing may proceed without this information, however if the information requested is received, any pertinent reported clinical features and data will drive the focus of the evaluation and be considered in the interpretation.

The laboratory has extensive experience in hemoglobin variant identification and many cases can be confidently classified without molecular testing. However, molecular confirmation is always available, subject to sufficient sample quantity (eg, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification testing requires at least 2 mL of sample in addition to protein testing requirements). If no molecular testing or specific molecular tests are desired, utilize the appropriate check boxes on the form. If the form or other communication is not received, the reviewing hematopathologist will select appropriate tests to sufficiently explain the protein findings which may or may not include molecular testing.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

The following specimens are required for testing:

2 Whole blood EDTA specimens

2 Whole blood ACD specimens

1 EDTA control specimen

2 Well-made peripheral blood smears (Wright stained or fixed in absolute methanol)

 

Patient:

Specimen Type: Blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA) and yellow top (ACD)

Specimen Volume:

EDTA: Two 4-mL vials

ACD: Two 6-mL vials

Collection Instructions:

1. Immediately refrigerate specimens after collection.

2. Send whole blood specimens in original tubes. Do not aliquot.

3. Rubber band patient specimen and control vial together.

 

Specimen Type: Slides

Container/Tube: Blood smears

Specimen Volume: 2 Peripheral blood smears

1. Prepare 2 peripheral blood smears from 1 of the EDTA tubes collected from the patient

2. Either stain the smear with Wright stain or fix the smear with absolute methanol prior to shipping.

 

Normal Shipping Control:

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 4 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a control specimen from a normal (healthy), unrelated, nonsmoking person at the same time as the patient.

2. Label clearly on outermost label normal control.

3. Immediately refrigerate specimen after collection.

4. Send specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

5. Rubber band patient specimen and control vial together.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Metabolic Hematology Patient Information (T810) in Special Instructions. Please fill out for a more complete evaluation by the signing Hematopathologist.

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Benign Hematology Test Request (T755) with the specimen.

 

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

EDTA Blood: 3 mL

ACD Blood: 5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Control Refrigerated (preferred) 72 hours PURPLE OR PINK TOP/EDTA
Whole Blood ACD-B Refrigerated (preferred) 72 hours
Whole Blood EDTA Refrigerated (preferred) 72 hours
Whole Blood Slide Refrigerated (preferred) CARTRIDGE

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of lifelong or inherited hemolytic anemias, including red cell membrane disorders, unstable or abnormal hemoglobin variants, and red cell enzyme disorders

 

This evaluation is not suitable for acquired causes of hemolysis.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This is a consultative evaluation in which the case will be evaluated, and appropriate tests performed at an additional charge, and the results interpreted. If a peripheral blood smear is provided, the morphologic features will be incorporated into the interpretation.

 

Red blood cell enzymes will always be performed. Capillary electrophoresis, cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and hemoglobin stability studies will always be performed. Reflex testing required to positively identify a hemoglobin abnormality may be added as the case requires. Osmotic fragility (OF) and eosin-5-maleimide binding band 3 flow cytometry will be performed on all cases. A normal shipping control for OF is necessary to exclude false-positive results due to preanalytic artifact.

 

The protein and molecular test results will be released separately which may result in incomplete data until all testing has been finalized.

 

One or more of the following molecular tests may be reflexed on this test:

-ATHAL / Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis, Varies

-WASQR / Alpha-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBSQR / Beta-Globin Gene Sequencing, Blood

-WBDDR / Beta-Globin Cluster Locus Deletion/Duplication, Blood

-WGSQR / Gamma-Globin Full Gene Sequencing, Varies

 

An additional comprehensive consultative interpretation that summarizes all results will be provided after all tests are completed to incorporate results into an overall evaluation.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Hemolytic anemia (HA) is characterized by increased red blood cell (RBC) destruction and a decreased RBC life span. Patients usually have decreased hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red blood cell count, but some can have compensated disorders, and symptoms such as reticulocytosis, pigmented gallstones, and decreased haptoglobin are factors that raise clinical suspicion. Blood smear abnormalities may include variable amounts of poikilocytosis including spherocytes, elliptocytes, schistocytes, stomatocytes, echinocytes, polychromasia, basophilic stippling, and target cells. Osmotic fragility can be increased due to the presence of spherocytes. These are all nonspecific features that can be present in both hereditary and acquired hemolytic disorders. 

 

Inherited hemolytic disorders may include RBC membrane disorders, RBC enzyme defects, or abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule in the RBC. This panel assesses for possible causes of congenital/hereditary causes of HA and does not evaluate for acquired causes. Therefore, the anemia should be lifelong or familial in nature. Examples of acquired HA include: autoimmune HA (Coombs-positive HA, Coombs-negative autoimmune HA), cold agglutinin disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, mechanical hemolysis (aortic stenosis or prosthetic heart valves), disseminated intravascular coagulation/thrombotic microangiopathy, and drug-induced HA.

 

This consultation evaluates for a hereditary cause of increased RBC destruction and includes testing for RBC membrane disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis, hemoglobinopathies, and red cell enzyme abnormalities. 

 

This panel is of limited use in patients with a history of recent transfusion and should be ordered as remote a date from transfusion as possible in those patients who are chronically transfused.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Hemoglobin Variant, A2 and F Quantitation

HEMOGLOBIN A

1-30 days: 5.9-77.2%

1-2 months: 7.9-92.4%

3-5 months: 54.7-97.1%

6-8 months: 80.0-98.0%

9-12 months: 86.2-98.0%

13-17 months: 88.8-98.0%

18-23 months: 90.4-98.0%

> or =24 months: 95.8-98.0%

 

HEMOGLOBIN A2

1-30 days: 0.0-2.1%

1-2 months: 0.0-2.6%

3-5 months: 1.3-3.1%

> or =6 months: 2.0-3.3%

 

HEMOGLOBIN F

1-30 days: 22.8-92.0%

1-2 months: 7.6-89.8%

3-5 months: 1.6-42.2%

6-8 months: 0.0-16.7%

9-12 months: 0.0-10.5%

13-17 months: 0.0-7.9%

18-23 months: 0.0-6.3%

> or =24 months: 0.0-0.9%

 

VARIANT 1

0.0

 

VARIANT 2

0.0

 

VARIANT 3

0.0

 

Hemoglobin Stability

Normal (reported as normal [stable] or abnormal [unstable])

 

OSMOTIC FRAGILITY

> or =12 months:

0.50 g/dL NaCl (unincubated): 3-53% hemolysis

0.60 g/dL NaCl (incubated): 14-74% hemolysis

0.65 g/dL NaCl (incubated): 4-40% hemolysis

0.75 g/dL NaCl (incubated): 1-11% hemolysis

 

Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

 

Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months of age: 8.0-11.9 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than12 months of age.

 

Pyruvate Kinase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months of age: 5.5-12.4 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than12 months of age.

 

Glucose Phosphate Isomerase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months of age: 40.0-58.0 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

 

Hexokinase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months: 0.7-1.7 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than12 months of age.

 

Adenylate Kinase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months: 195-276 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than 12 months of age.

 

Phosphofructokinase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months of age: 5.8-10.9 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than12 months of age.

 

Phosphoglycerate Kinase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months: 142-232 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are less than12 months of age.

 

Triosephosphate Isomerase Enzyme Activity

> or =12 months of age: 1033-1363 U/g Hb

Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

 

Glutathione

> or =12 months: 46.9-90.1 mg/dL RBC

Reference values have not been established for patients who are <12 months of age.

 

Pyrimidine 5' Nucleotidase

Normal

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A hematopathologist expert in these disorders evaluates the case, appropriate tests are performed, and an interpretive report is issued.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Recent transfusion may cause unreliable results.

 

A normal shipping control for osmotic fragility (OF) is necessary to exclude false-positive results due to preanalytical artifact. OF and eosin-5-maleimide binding testing will be canceled if no shipping control is received or if the shipping control is abnormal.

 

This panel is most effectively interpreted in the context of clinical information and the peripheral blood morphology. Fill out the Metabolic Hematology Patient Information (T810) available in Special Instructions to maximize the interpretive capabilities of the panel.

 

This group of tests should not ordinarily be requested in patients who are likely to have immune hemolytic anemia (HA), such as that due to either warm or cold antibodies or to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinurias. Coombs tests, tests for cold agglutinins, sucrose hemolysis, and Hams and Crosby tests are not part of the HA evaluation. In general, the foregoing tests should have been performed and found to be negative prior to requesting an HA evaluation. Since Wilson disease is another rare cause for acute intermittent hemolysis, testing for Wilson disease also may be appropriate prior to requesting an HA evaluation.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Steiner LA, Gallagher PG: Erythrocyte disorders in the perinatal period. Semin Perinatol. 2007 Aug;31(4):254-261

2. Beutler E: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and other enzyme abnormalities. In: Beutler E, Lichtman MA, Coller BS, Kipps TJ, eds. Hematology. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1995:564-581

3. Hoyer JD, Hoffman DR: The thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy syndromes. In: McClatchey KD, Amin HM, Curry JL, eds. Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2002:866-895

4. King MJ, Garcon L, Hoyer JD, et al: International Council for Standardization in Haematology. ICSH guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of nonimmune hereditary red cell membrane disorders. Int J Lab Hematol. 2015 Jun;37(3):304-325

5. Lux SE: Anatomy of the red cell membrane skeleton: unanswered questions. Blood. 2016 Jan 14;127(2):187-199. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-12-512772

6. Gallagher PG: Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013 Dec;60(6):1349-1362

7. Bianchi P, Fermo E, Vercellati C, et al: Diagnostic power of laboratory tests for hereditary spherocytosis: a comparison study in 150 patients grouped according to molecular and clinical characteristics. Haematologica. 2012 Apr;97(4):516-523

8. Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008;371:64-74

9. Glader B: Hereditary hemolytic anemias due to red blood cell enzyme disorders. In: Greer JP, Arber DA, Glader B, et al, eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. 13th ed. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2014:728

10. Gallagher PG: Diagnosis and management of rare congenital nonimmune hemolytic disease. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015;2015:392-399

11. Koralkova P, van Solinge WW, van Wijk R: Rare hereditary red blood cell enzymopathies associated with hemolytic anemia - pathophysiology, clinical aspects, and laboratory diagnosis. Int J Lab Hematol. 2014 Jun;36(3):388-397

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Hemoglobin Electrophoresis:

The CAPILLARYS System is an automated system that uses capillary electrophoresis to separate charged molecules by their electrophoretic mobility in an alkaline buffer. Separation occurs according to the electrolyte pH and electro-osmotic flow. A sample dilution with hemolyzing solution is injected by aspiration. A high voltage protein separation occurs and direct detection of the hemoglobin protein fractions is at 415 nm, which is specific to hemoglobins. The resulting electrophoregram peaks are evaluated for pattern abnormalities and are quantified as a percentage of the total hemoglobin present. Examples of position of commonly found hemoglobin fractions are, from cathode to anode: HbA2', C, A2/O-Arab, E, S, D, G-Philadelphia, F, A, Hope, Bart, J, N-Baltimore and H.(Louahabi A, Philippe M, Lali S, Wallemacq P, Maisin D: Evaluation of a new Sebia kit for analysis of hemoglobin fractions and variants on the Capillarys system. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44[3]:340-345; instruction manual: CAPILLARYS Hemoglobin(E) using the CAPILLARYS 2 flex-piercing instrument. Sebia; 06/2014)

 

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hemoglobin Variant:

Hemolysate of whole blood is injected into an analysis stream passing through cation exchange column using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preprogrammed gradient controls the elution buffer mixture that also passes through the analytical cartridge. The ionic strength of the elution buffer is raised by increasing the percentage of a second buffer. As the ionic strength of the buffer increases the more strongly retained hemoglobins elute from the cartridge. Absorbance changes are detected by a dual-wavelength filter photometer. Changes in absorbance are displayed as a chromatogram of absorbance versus time.(Huismann TH, Scroeder WA, Brodie AN, Mayson SM, Jakway J: Microchromotography of hemoglobins. III. A simplified procedure for the determination of hemoglobin A2. J Lab Clin Med. 1975;86:700-702; Ou CN, Buffone GJ, Reimer GL, Alpert AJ: High-performance liquid chromatography of human hemoglobins on a new cation exchanger. J Chromatogr. 1983;266:197-205; instruction manual: Bio-Rad Variant II Beta-thalassemia Short Program Instructions for Use, L70203705. Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc; 11/2011)

 

Unstable Hemoglobin:

Two different hemoglobin stability tests are performed: isopropanol and heat stability.

 

Unstable hemoglobins will precipitate in dilute solutions of isopropanol. Washed erythrocytes are hemolyzed and cleared by centrifugation. Isopropanol is added. The hemolysate is incubated at 37 degrees C for 20 minutes and examined for turbidity. There is no turbidity with normal hemoglobins.(Fairbanks VF, Klee GG: Biochemical aspects of hematology. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed. WB Saunders Company; 1999:1685-1687; Greene DN, Vaughn CP, Crews BO, Agarwal AM: Advances in the detection of hemoglobinopathies. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2015;439:50-57)

 

Unstable hemoglobins can also be precipitated by heating to 50 degrees C. Washed erythrocytes are hemolyzed and cleared by centrifugation. The hemolysate is incubated at 50 degrees C for 90 minutes and examined for turbidity. There is no turbidity with normal hemoglobins.

 

Osmotic Fragility:

Specimens for erythrocyte osmotic fragility tests are anticoagulated with EDTA. Osmotic lysis is performed using sodium chloride solution, 0.5 g/dL. An incubated fragility test is performed following 24-hour incubation at 37 degrees C at the following NaCl concentrations: 0.60, 0.65, and 0.75 g/dL. Results are reported and interpreted.(Larson CJ, Scheidt R, Fairbanks VF: The osmotic fragility test for hereditary spherocytosis: use of EDTA-anticoagulated blood stored at 4 degrees C for up to 96 hours. Am Soc Clin Pathol Meeting Abstract, 1988; Larson CJ, Scheidt R, Fairbanks VF: The osmotic fragility test for hereditary spherocytosis: objective criteria for test interpretation. Am Soc Clin Pathol Meeting Abstract, 1988; King MJ, Zanella A: Hereditary red cell membrane disorders and laboratory diagnostic testing. Int J Lab Hematol. 2013;35:237-243)

 

Band 3/Eosin-5-Maleimide Binding Assay:

Eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) is a fluorescent dye that binds to Lys-430 of the extracellular loop of the band 3 protein. Using a 1-color flow cytometry method (number of events plotted against fluorescence), the fluorescent intensity of EMA-stained RBC, is assessed and compared to normal-value patients.(King MJ, Behrens J, Rogers C, Flynn C, Greenwood D, Chambers K: Rapid flow cytometric test for the diagnosis of membrane cytoskeletal associated hemolytic anemia. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:924-933; King MJ, Zanella A: Hereditary red cell membrane disorders and laboratory diagnostic testing. Int J Lab Hematol. 2013;35:237-243)

 

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase:

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in a hemolysate catalyzes the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate. Concomitantly, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[+]) is changed to its reduced form (NADPH) and the reaction is measured spectrophotometrically on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton: 1984:68-71; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Pyruvate Kinase:

Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. The amount of pyruvate formed is quantitated by adding lactate dehydrogenase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and measuring the rate of decrease in absorbance spectrophotometrically at 340 nm as the NADH is oxidized to NAD(+) on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism. A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:68-71; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30

 

Glucose Phosphate Isomerase:

Glucose phosphate isomerase interconverts glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-P (F6P). In this assay, the F6P is then further converted to 6-phosphogluconate (6-PG) through the G6PD reaction resulting in the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH. The reduction of NADP(+) is measured spectrophotometrically by the increase in absorbance at 340 nm on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:40-42; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Hexokinase:

Hexokinase catalyzes the reaction of ATP and glucose to G6P and ADP. In this assay the formation of G6P is measured by linking its further oxidation to 6-PG to the reduction of NADP(+) through the G6PD reaction. The increase in absorbance which occurs as NADP(+) is reduced to NADPH is measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:38-40; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Adenylate Kinase:

Adenylate kinase (myokinase) catalyzes the dismutation of ADP into adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) and ATP. In this assay, the reverse reaction is measured by following the formation of ADP with pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase reactions resulting in NADH being oxidized to NAD(+). The decrease in absorbance that occurs as NADH is oxidized is measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm by an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:93-95; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Phosphofructokinase:

Phosphofructokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of F6P by ATP to fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). FDP is then converted to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) through subsequent aldolase and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyzed reactions. The rate of formation of DHAP is measured by linking its reduction to alpha-glycerophosphate by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, which results in the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The decrease in absorbance at 340 nm is measured spectrophotometrically as the NADH is oxidized on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:68-71; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Phosphoglycerate Kinase:

Phosphoglycerate kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP by conversion of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate (1,3-DPG) to 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA). In this assay, the reaction is driven in the reverse direction. The formation of 1,3-DPG is then measured through the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase reaction as 1,3-DPG is converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) resulting in the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The decrease in absorbance that occurs as NADH is oxidized is measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:53-55; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Triosephosphate Isomerase:

TPI interconverts GAP and DHAP. The rate of DHAP formation is measured by further converting it to alpha-glycerophosphate by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase which results in the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The oxidation of NADH is measured spectrophotometrically by the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm on an automated chemistry analyzer.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton;1984; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Glutathione:

Virtually all of the nonprotein sulfhydryl of red cells is in the form of reduced glutathione. 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) is a disulfide compound that is readily reduced by sulfhydryl compounds, forming a highly colored yellow anion. The absorbance of this resultant yellow substance is measured by 412 nm and compared to that of a known standard.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods;  3rd ed. Grune and Stratton: 1984; Alisik M, Neselioglu S, Erel O: A colorimetric method to measure oxidized, reduced and total glutathione levels in erythrocytes, J Lab Med. 2019:43(5), 269-277. doi: 10.1515/labmed-2019-0098)

 

Pyrimidine 5' Nucleotidase:

Pyrimidine nucleotides have a spectral absorption curve that is markedly different from that exhibited by (normally present) adenine nucleotides, eg, adenosine triphosphate. The former have a peak at about 270 nm; the latter at about 257 nm. Thus, pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase deficiency may be ascertained by demonstrating a very high spectral absorption maximum of 270 nm in erythrocyte extracts.(Beutler E: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Grune and Stratton; 1984:100-102; van Solinge WW, van Wijk: Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT: eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 30)

 

Morphology Review:

A hematopathologist who is an expert in these disorders evaluates the slides and an interpretive report is issued.

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 25 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

28 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83020-26-Hemolytic Anemia Interpretation

82657-Hexokinase, B

82955-G6PD Enzyme Activity, B

83020-Hemoglobin electrophoresis

83021-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

83068-Hemoglobin Stability

84087-Glucose phosphate isomerase, B

84220-Pyruvate Kinase Enzyme Activity, B

82657-Adenylate Kinase, B

82657-Phosphofructokinase, B

82657-Phosphoglycerate Kinase, B

82657-Trisephosphate Isomerase, B

85060-Morphology review

85557-Osmotic fragility

88184-Band 3 Fluorescence Staining, RBC

83915-Pyrimidine 5’ Nucleotidase

82978-Glutathione, B

83789 (if appropriate)

82664 (if appropriate)

88184 (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
HAEV1 Hemolytic Anemia Evaluation In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Result LOINC Value Tooltip

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports