Test Catalog

Test Id : BA48F

Bile Acids, Bowel Dysfunction, 48 Hour, Feces

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aids to evaluate patients suspected of having irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) symptoms due to bile acid malabsorption

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Bile Acids, Bowel Dysfunc, 48 Hr, F

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Fecal bile acids

Stool bile acids

Fecal bile salts

Stool bile salts

Bile acid malabsorption

Fractionated and Total Bile Acids

BA48F

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Fecal

Ordering Guidance

This test is for evaluation of bowel dysfunction.

 

For evaluation of hepatobiliary dysfunction, order BILEA / Bile Acids, Total, Serum.

For evaluation of patients treated with urso or cholate, order BAFS / Bile Acids, Fractionated and Total, Serum.

For evaluation of inborn errors of metabolism, order BAIPD / Bile Acids for Peroxisomal Disorders, Serum.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation:

For 3 days prior to and during the collection period:

1. Patient should be on a fat-controlled diet (100-150 g fat per day)

2. No laxatives (particularly mineral oil and castor oil)

3. No synthetic fat substitutes (eg, Olestra) or fat-blocking nutritional supplements

Supplies: Stool Containers - 24, 48, 72 Hours Kit (T291)

Collection Container/Tube: Stool container (T291); complies with shipping requirements, do not use other containers

Specimen Volume: Entire 48-hour collection

Collection Instructions:

1. Do not use other containers.

2. All containers must be sent together.

3. The entire collection must contain at least 5 g of feces.

4. The number of containers sent should be indicated on the labels (1 of 4, for example).

Additional Information:

1. Patient may store sample at refrigerate temperature during collection period.

2. Barium interferes with test procedure; a waiting period of 48 hours before stool collection analysis is recommended.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

5 g

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Fecal Frozen (preferred) 30 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aids to evaluate patients suspected of having irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) symptoms due to bile acid malabsorption

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Bile acids are natural products of cholesterol synthesis that aid in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats in the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are reabsorbed in the ileum of the healthy individual, with only 5% excreted in feces.(1) Primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are deconjugated and dehydroxylated via intestinal bacteria into secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), respectively.(2) The sum of CA, CDCA, DCA, LCA, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) compose the majority of bile acids in the feces. Impaired absorption of bile acids in the terminal ileum leads to excess bile acids in the colon that can cause diarrhea from chloride and water secretion; a condition called bile acid malabsorption (BAM).

 

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a nonspecific multifactorial disorder involving the large intestine. IBS is characterized by cramping, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation and classified as either IBS-D (diarrhea) or IBS-C (constipation) by the Rome III criteria.(3) Up to 50% of IBS-D patients have accelerated colonic transit time; the mechanism of IBS-D pathophysiology is varied with more than 25% having BAM.(1,4)

 

Several methods have been developed for detection of BAM, but are not widely available in clinical practice.(5) Therefore, patients are often placed on trials of bile acids sequestrants to determine if symptoms improve.

 

Quantitation of fecal bile acids aids in screening for IBS-D and identification of patients with chronic diarrhea who may benefit from bile acid sequestrant therapy.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

> or = to 18 years:

Sum of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid < or =9.7%

Total bile acids < or =2619 mcmoles/48 hours

 

Reference values have not been established for patients who are <18 years of age

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Elevated total fecal bile acid or percent cholic acid plus chenodeoxycholic acid is consistent with the diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption.

 

Pharmacological treatment with bile acid sequestrants has been shown to improve symptoms in some patients.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Bile acids are not stable in stool. Stool samples must be kept frozen immediately after collection.

Supportive Data

Bile acid (BA) malabsorption is suspected when total BA is greater than 2337 mcmol/48hr, or primary BA (% cholic acid plus chenodeoxycholic acid) is greater than 10%, or total BA is greater than 1000 mcmol/48hr + primary BA is greater or equal to 4%.(1)

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Vijayvargiya P, Camilleri M, Chedid V, et al: Analysis of fecal primary bile acids detects increased stool weight and colonic transit in patients with chronic functional diarrhea. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;17(5):922-929.e2

2. Vijayvargiya P, Camilleri M, Current practice in the diagnosis of bile acid diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 2019;156:(5):1233-1238

3. Wedlake L, A'Hern R, Russell D, et al: Systematic review: The prevalence of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption as diagnosed by SeHCAT scanning in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;30:707-717

4. Shin A, Camilleri M, Vijayvargiya P, et al: Bowel functions, fecal unconjugated primary and secondary bile acids, and colonic transit in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;11(10):1270-1275

5. Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, et al: Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1480-1491

6. Camilleri M, McKinzie S, Busciglio I, et al: Prospective study of motor, sensory, psychologic, and autonomic functions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:772-781

7. Vijayvargiya P, Camilleri M, Shin A, Saenger A: Methods for diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption in clinical practice. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;11(10):1232-1239

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Fractionated fecal bile acids are quantified in a 48-hour fecal collection during which a high-fat intake diet was followed. Samples are analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 9 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82542

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports