Test Catalog

Test Id : VWFMS

von Willebrand Factor Multimer Analysis, Plasma

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Resolving discrepancies when results of complementary laboratory tests (eg, F8A / Coagulation Factor VIII Activity Assay, Plasma; VWACT / von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma; and VWAG / von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma) are abnormally low or discordant

 

Subtyping von Willebrand disease (VWD) (primarily identify variants of type 2 VWD)

 

Aiding in determining appropriate treatment

 

Identifying variants of type 2 VWD that have fewer of the largest multimers, have unusually large multimers, or have qualitatively abnormal "bands" that indicate an abnormal von Willebrand factor structure

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis/Infrared Dye-Labeled Antibody Detection

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

von Willebrand Factor Multimer, P

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Polymers, Von Willebrand Factor

VWF Mult Anal

Von Willebrand Protein Polymers SDS Gel, Plasma

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Plasma Na Cit

Ordering Guidance

Coagulation testing is highly complex, often requiring the performance of multiple assays and correlation with clinical information. For that reason, we suggest ordering AVWPR / von Willebrand Disease Profile, Plasma.

Additional Testing Requirements

VWACT / von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma and VWAG / von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma are requested but not required before performing this test. If already assayed, submit results. If no results are included, submit separate specimens for the above assays following specimen requirements for each test.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation:

1. Fasting is preferred.

2. Specimen should be collected prior to coagulation factor replacement therapy.

Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (3.2% sodium citrate)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. For complete instructions, see Coagulation Guidelines for Specimen Handling and Processing.

2. Centrifuge, transfer all plasma into a plastic vial, and centrifuge plasma again.

3. Aliquot plasma into a plastic vial leaving 0.25 mL in the bottom of centrifuged vial.

4. Freeze plasma immediately (no longer than 4 hours after collection) at -20 degrees C or, ideally, < or =-40 degrees C.

Additional Information:

1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.

2. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. Coagulation Patient Information (T675)

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Coagulation Test Request (T753) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Na Cit Frozen (preferred) 42 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Resolving discrepancies when results of complementary laboratory tests (eg, F8A / Coagulation Factor VIII Activity Assay, Plasma; VWACT / von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma; and VWAG / von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma) are abnormally low or discordant

 

Subtyping von Willebrand disease (VWD) (primarily identify variants of type 2 VWD)

 

Aiding in determining appropriate treatment

 

Identifying variants of type 2 VWD that have fewer of the largest multimers, have unusually large multimers, or have qualitatively abnormal "bands" that indicate an abnormal von Willebrand factor structure

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric plasma glycoprotein that has essential roles in primary hemostasis. Wild-type VWF molecules are series of multimers varying in size from dimers to multimers over 40 subunits (>10 million Da). The largest multimers provide multiple binding sites that can interact with both platelet receptors and subendothelial matrix sites of injury and are the most hemostatically active form of VWF. The biological functions of VWF are as follows:

1. VWF is a ligand and mediates platelet adhesion to the subendothelial collagen at the site of vessel wall injury by binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)-Ib, V, IX complex, and subendothelial collagen

2. VWF binds and stabilizes procoagulant factor VIII in the circulation

3. Under conditions of high shear, VWF also mediates platelet-platelet cohesion by binding to the platelet receptor GP-IIb/IIIa (integrin alpha IIb beta3)

 

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder that is caused by quantitative or qualitative VWF defect. VWD manifests clinically as easy bruising, mucocutaneous bleeding (eg, epistaxis, menorrhagia), and bleeding after trauma or surgery.

 

VWD has been classified into 3 major types:

-Type 1, typically an autosomal dominant disease, is the most common, accounting for approximately 70% of VWD patients. It represents a quantitative deficiency of VWF of variable severity.

-Type 2, which is usually an autosomal dominant disease, is characterized by several qualitative abnormalities of VWF. Four subtypes have been identified: 2A, 2B, 2M, and 2N.

-Type 3, an autosomal recessive disorder, leads to severe disease with virtually undetectable levels of VWF, as well as very low levels of factor VIII.

 

Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is associated with a number of different disease states and is caused by several different pathophysiological mechanisms, including antibody formation, proteolysis, binding to tumor cells with increased clearance, and decreased synthesis. AVWS is most frequently described in patients with dysproteinemias (including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and macroglobulinemia), lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders (eg, essential thrombocythemia), autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus), high-shear stress cardiovascular conditions such as severe aortic stenosis, gastrointestinal angiodysplasia, and hypothyroidism.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

The plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer analysis is a qualitative visual assessment of the size spectrum and the banding pattern of VWF multimers.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer analysis is not useful if the following tests are normal:

-F8A / Coagulation Factor VIII Activity Assay, Plasma

-RIST / Ristocetin Cofactor, Plasma

-VWACT / von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma

-VWAG / von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma

 

Or when:

-The VWF ristocetin cofactor:vWF antigen ratio is > or =0.7

-The vWF activity:vWF antigen ratio is > or =0.8

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Budde U, Schneppenheim R: von Willebrand Factor and von Willebrand Disease. Rev Clin Exp Hematol. 2001 Dec;5.(4):335-368

2. Ruggeri ZM: Structure and function of von Willebrand factor: Relationship to von Willebrand's disease. Mayo Clinic Proc. 1991 Aug;66(8):847-861

3. Sadler JE: A revised classification of von Willebrand disease. Thromb Haemost. 1994;71:520-525

4. Laffan M, Brown SA, Collins PW, et al: The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease: a guideline from the UK Haemophilia Centre Doctors Organization. Haemophilia. 2004 May;10(3):199-217

5. Mannucci PM: Treatment of von Willebrand's disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Aug 12;351(7):683-694

6. Pruthi RKl, Daniels TM, Heit JA, et al: Plasma von Willebrand factor multimer quantitative analysis by in-gel immunostaining and infrared fluorescent imaging. Thromb Res. 2010 Dec;126(6):543-549

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Platelet-poor plasma proteins are denatured using heat and an anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate. The sample is then electrophoresed through a discontinuous agarose gel on a cooled horizontal electrophoresis unit overnight to separate the von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers by size. The gel is fixed in acid and isopropanol, washed in water, and incubated with dilute rabbit-antihuman VWF. After washing away unbound antibody, the gel is incubated with dilute goat-antirabbit IgG antibody tagged with an infrared dye. Excess secondary antibody is washed away, and the gel is scanned using an infrared imaging system. The digitized image of the electrophoretic distribution of the VWF multimers is interpreted by a coagulation consultant and a written report is provided.(Favaloro EJ, Koutts J: Diagnosis of von Willebrand disease. In: Kottke-Marchant K, ed. Laboratory Hematology Practice. Wiley Blackwell; 2012:447-459)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Thursday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

7 to 14 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

21 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

85247

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports