Test Catalog

Test Id : VALPG

Valproic Acid, Free and Total, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring both total and free valproic acid levels in therapy

 

Assessing compliance

 

Evaluating potential toxicity

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
VALPF Valproic Acid, Free, S Yes Yes
VALPA Valproic Acid, Tot, S Yes Yes

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

VALPA: Immunoassay

VALPF: Ultrafiltration Followed by Immunoassay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Valproic Acid, Free and Total, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Depakote (Valproic Acid)

Divalproex

Free Valproic Acid

Valproate

Valproic Acid (Depakene)

Valproic Acid (Depakote)

Depakene (Valproic Acid)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 2 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Serum gel tubes should be centrifuged within 2 hours of collection.

2. Red-top tubes should be centrifuged and aliquoted within 2 hours of collection.

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Therapeutics Test Request (T831) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 28 days
Ambient 72 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring both total and free valproic acid levels in therapy

 

Assessing compliance

 

Evaluating potential toxicity

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Valproic acid (valproate, Depakote, or Depakene) is an effective medication for absence seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and partial seizures, when administered alone or in conjunction with other antiepileptic agents.

 

The valproic acid that circulates in blood is 85% to 90% protein-bound under normal circumstances. In uremia or during concomitant therapy with other drugs that are highly protein-bound (such as phenytoin), valproic acid is displaced from protein, resulting in a higher free fraction of the drug circulating in blood.

 

Since neurologic activity and toxicity of valproic acid are directly related to the unbound fraction of drug, adjustment of dosage based on knowledge of the free valproic acid concentration may be useful in the following: concomitant use of highly protein-bound drugs (usually >80% bound), hypoalbuminemia, pregnancy, kidney or liver failure, and in older adults. In these situations, the total valproic acid concentration in the blood may underestimate the disproportionately higher free valproic acid fraction.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

VALPROIC ACID, TOTAL

Therapeutic: 50 (trough)-125 (peak) mcg/mL

Critical value: > or =151 mcg/mL

 

VALPROIC ACID, FREE

Therapeutic: 5-25 mcg/mL

Critical value: >30 mcg/mL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

The generally acceptable range for total valproic acid used as a reference to guide therapy is 50 to 125 mcg/mL. The corresponding range of free valproic acid concentration for clinical reference is 5 to 25 mcg/mL.

 

Low free valproic acid concentration relative to these ranges may suggest inadequate dosing, whereas a high free valproic acid concentration may be associated with toxic effects.

 

Because the concentration of valproic acid fluctuates considerably depending on the time from last dose, interpretation of the clinical significance of the valproic acid concentration must take into consideration the timing of the blood specimen. For this reason, 2 collections are sometimes made to assess the trough and peak concentrations.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Specimens subjected to significant heat or other factors that could cause protein denaturation would demonstrate an artificially increased free valproic acid.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Cloyd JC, Fischer JH, Kriel RL, Kraus DM: Valproic acid pharmacokinetics in children: Effects of age and antiepileptic drugs on protein binding and intrinsic clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993;53:22-29

2. Wagner ML, Graves NM, Leppik IE, et al: The effect of felbamate on valproic acid disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;56:494-502

3. Dasgupta A, Volk A: Displacement of valproic acid and carbamazepine from protein binding in normal and uremic sera by tolmetin, ibuprofen, and naproxen: presence of inhibitor in uremic serum that blocks valproic acid-naproxen interactions. Ther Drug Monit. 1996;18:284-287

4. Moyer TP: Therapeutic drug monitoring. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 4th ed. WB Saunders Company; 2005:1237-1285

5. Patsalos PN, Spencer EP, Berry DJ: Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy: A 2018 update. Ther Drug Monit. 2018 Oct;40(5):526-548. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0000000000000546

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The assay is based on a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay technique used for the quantitative analysis of valproic acid (free and protein-bound) in human serum or plasma. The assay is based on competition between drug in the sample and drug labeled with the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) for antibody binding sites. Enzyme activity decreases upon binding to the antibody, so the drug concentration in the sample can be measured in terms of enzyme activity. Active enzyme converts oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH, resulting in an absorbance change that is measured spectrophotometrically. Endogenous serum G6PD does not interfere because the coenzyme functions only with the bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides) enzyme employed in the assay.(Package insert: Valproic Acid reagent. Roche Diagnostics; 04/2018)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 day

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

VALPA-80164

VALPF-80165

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VALPG Valproic Acid, Free and Total, S 57775-9
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
VALPA Valproic Acid, Tot, S 4086-5
VALPF Valproic Acid, Free, S 4087-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports