Test Catalog

Test Id : RSCOC

Coccidioides Antibody Reflex, Complement Fixation and Immunodiffusion, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Detection of antibodies to Coccidioides species

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see COXIS / Coccidioides Antibody Screen with Reflex, Serum.

 

Complement Fixation (CF)/Immunodiffusion (ID)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Coccidioides Ab, CompF/ImmDiff,S

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see COXIS / Coccidioides Antibody Screen with Reflex, Serum.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1.2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Detection of antibodies to Coccidioides species

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever, San Joaquin Valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, Central America, and South America. It is acquired by inhalation of arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis/posadasii. Usually, it is a mild, self-limiting pulmonary infection. Less commonly, chronic pneumonia may occur, progressing to fibronodular, cavitary disease. A rash often develops within a day or 2, followed by erythema nodosum or multiforme and accompanying arthralgias. About 2 weeks after exposure, symptomatic patients develop fever, cough, malaise, and anorexia; chest pain is often severe. Coccidioidomycosis may disseminate beyond the lungs to involve multiple organs, including the meninges.

 

IgG antibody is detected by the complement-fixation tests. Precipitating antibodies (IgM and IgG) are detected by immunodiffusion. They are rarely found in cerebrospinal fluid; however, their presence is associated with meningitis. Chronic coccidioidal pulmonary cavities are often accompanied by IgG and IgM precipitating antibodies.

 

Serologic testing for coccidioidomycosis should be considered when patients exhibit symptoms of pulmonary or meningeal infection and have lived or traveled in areas where Coccidioides immitis/possadasii is endemic. Any history of exposure to the organism or travel cannot be overemphasized when a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is being considered.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Only orderable as a reflex. For more information see COXIS / Coccidioides Antibody Screen with Reflex, Serum.

 

COMPLEMENT FIXATION:

Negative

If positive, results are titered. 

 

IMMUNODIFFUSION:

Negative

Results are reported as positive, negative, or equivocal.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Complement Fixation:

Titers of 1:2 or higher may suggest active disease; however, titers may persist for months after infection has resolved. Increasing complement fixation (CF) titers in serial specimens are considered diagnostic of active disease.

 

Immunodiffusion:

The presence of IgM antibody may be detectable within 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms; however, antibody may be detected longer than 6 months after infection.

 

The presence of IgG antibody parallels the CF antibody and may suggest an active or a recent asymptomatic infection with Coccidioides immitis/posadasii; however, antibodies may persist after the infection has resolved.

 

An equivocal result (a band of nonidentity) cannot be interpreted as significant for a specific diagnosis. However, this may be an indication that a patient should be followed serologically.

 

Over 90% of primary symptomatic cases will be detected by combined immunodiffusion (ID) and CF testing.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Antibodies (both IgM and IgG) may be present after the infection has resolved.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Larone D, Mitchell T, Walsh T: Histoplasma, blastomyces, coccidioides, and other dimorphic fungi causing systemic mycoses. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, et al, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 7th ed. ASM Press; 1999:1260-1261

2. Ramanan P, Wengenack NL, Theel ES: Laboratory diagnosis for fungal infections. A review of current and future diagnostic assays. Clin Chest Med. 2017 Sep;38(3):535-554. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2017.04.013

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Complement Fixation:

Antibody to coccidioidin in the patient's serum is quantitated by complement fixation (CF). The CF test is a 2-stage test based on the ability of antigen-antibody complexes to bind complement (C'). In the first stage, antigen and antibody combine and fix C'. The second stage is an indicator system in which sheep erythrocytes, sensitized by rabbit anti-sheep red cell antibody (hemolysin), are used to demonstrate the presence of unfixed C'. If the patient's serum contains C'-fixing antibody that reacts with the specific antigen (a positive reaction), C' will be fixed and excess C' will not be available to react with and lyse the sensitized sheep erythrocytes. If no antigen-antibody reaction occurs (a negative reaction), C' will be available to lyse the sheep erythrocytes. The CF titer is determined by the greatest dilution of serum (antibody) in which the sheep erythrocytes are not lysed.(Kaufman L, Kovacs JA, Reiss E: Immunomycology. In: Rose NR, de Macario ED, Folds JD, et al, eds. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 5th ed. ASM Press; 1997:591-592; Pappagianis D, Zimmer BL: Serology of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990;3:247-268; Ramanan P, Wengenack NL, Theel ES: Laboratory diagnosis for fungal infections. A review of current and future diagnostic assays. Clin Chest Med. 2017 Sep;38(3):535-554)

 

Immunodiffusion:

Immunodiffusion (ID) is a qualitative test employed for the detection of precipitating antibodies present in the serum. Soluble antigens of the fungus are placed in wells of an agarose gel filled Petri dish and the patient's serum and a control (positive) serum are placed in adjoining wells. If present, specific precipitate antibody will form precipitin lines between the wells. Their comparison to the control serum establishes the results. When performing the ID test, only precipitin bands of identity with the reference bands are significant.(Kaufman L, Kovacs JA, Reiss E: Immunomycology. In: Rose NR, de Macario ED, Folds JD, et al, eds. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 5th ed. ASM Press; 1997:591-593; Pappagianis D, Zimmer BL: Serology of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990;3:247-268; Ramanan P, Wengenack NL, Theel ES: Laboratory diagnosis for fungal infections. A review of current and future diagnostic assays. Clin Chest Med. 2017 Sep;38(3):535-554)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

4 to 7 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86635 x 3

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
RSCOC Coccidioides Ab, CompF/ImmDiff,S 26625-4
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
35942 Coccidioides Ab, CompF,S 33379-9
35943 Coccidioides, IgG, ImmDiff,S 46182-2
35944 Coccidioides, IgM, ImmDiff,S 46183-0

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports