Test Catalog

Test Id : PLPMA

Prolactin, Pituitary Macroadenoma, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Quantifying prolactin in serum specimens where the high-dose hook effect is suspected (eg, presence of pituitary tumor with symptoms of prolactinoma, and lower than expected serum prolactin concentration)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

A pituitary adenoma should be identified by imaging studies prior to ordering this test.

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Prolactin, Pituitary Macroadenoma

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Prolactin Dilution

Prolactin (PRL)

PRL (Prolactin)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

A pituitary adenoma should be identified by imaging studies prior to ordering this test.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

For initial patient assessment; order PRL / Prolactin, Serum as the screening test.

Necessary Information

Patient's age and sex are required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 2 mL

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send an Oncology Test Request (T729) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1.75 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 90 days
Ambient 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Quantifying prolactin in serum specimens where the high-dose hook effect is suspected (eg, presence of pituitary tumor with symptoms of prolactinoma, and lower than expected serum prolactin concentration)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

A pituitary adenoma should be identified by imaging studies prior to ordering this test.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Prolactin-secreting macroadenomas (>10 mm in diameter) can sometimes produce exceedingly high serum prolactin concentrations that may paradoxically result in falsely low prolactin concentrations when measured by immunometric assays. In such situations, very high concentrations of prolactin saturate both the capture and signal antibodies in the assay, block formation of the capture antibody-prolactin-signal antibody "sandwich," and result in falsely decreased prolactin results (referred to as the high-dose hook effect). With such tumors, serum prolactin levels may be falsely decreased into the normal reference interval, potentially resulting in inappropriate patient management. Dilution of the specimen eliminates the analytic artifact in these cases.

 

Prolactin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and controlled by the hypothalamus. The major chemical controlling prolactin secretion is dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion from the pituitary. Prolactin is released from the pituitary in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and other factors.

 

Prolactin is the principal hormone that controls the initiation and maintenance of lactation. In normal individuals, prolactin concentrations increase in response to physiologic stimuli such as sleep, stress, exercise, sexual intercourse, and hypoglycemia, and are also elevated during pregnancy, lactation, postpartum, and in the newborn infant.

 

Hyperprolactinemia is the most common hypothalamic-pituitary disorder encountered in clinical endocrinology. Pathologic causes of hyperprolactinemia include prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma, which is more frequent in females than males, and accounts for approximately 40% of all pituitary tumors), functional and organic disease of the hypothalamus, primary hypothyroidism, compression of the pituitary stalk, chest wall lesions, renal insufficiency, polycystic ovarian disease, and ectopic tumors.

 

In general, serum prolactin concentrations parallel tumor size in patients with prolactinomas. Macroadenomas (>10 mm in diameter) are typically associated with serum prolactin concentrations >250 ng/mL and a concentration >500 ng/mL is diagnostic of a macroprolactinoma. Moderately increased concentrations of serum prolactin are not a reliable guide for determining whether a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma is present.

 

Multiple medications can cause increased prolactin concentration including estrogens, dopamine receptor blockers (eg, phenothiazines), dopamine antagonists (eg, metoclopramide, domperidone), alpha-methyldopa, cimetidine, opiates, antihypertensive medications, and other antidepressants and antipsychotics.

 

Hyperprolactinemia often results in loss of libido, galactorrhea, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, and infertility in premenopausal females; and loss of libido, impotence, infertility, and hypogonadism in males. Postmenopausal and premenopausal women, as well as men, can also suffer from decreased muscle mass and osteoporosis.

 

Prolactinomas may rarely present in childhood or adolescence. In girls, disturbances in menstrual function and galactorrhea may be seen, whereas in boys, delayed pubertal development and hypogonadism are often present. The treatment options are the same as in adult patients.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Males

<18 years: not established

> or =18 years: 4.0-15.2 ng/mL

 

Females:

<18 years: not established

> or =18 years: 4.8-23.3 ng/mL 

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

If no high-dose hook effect is observed, the following report comment will be included with the prolactin result: 10-, 100-, and 400-fold dilutions produced results consistent with the absence of high-dose hook effect. Total prolactin was measured using the Roche Cobas e immunoassay analyzer.

 

If a high-dose hook effect is observed, which is demonstrated by significantly increasing concentrations of prolactin obtained after dilution of the serum, an interpretive comment will be included with the prolactin result.

 

The Roche Cobas Prolactin II assay should demonstrate no high-dose hook effect at prolactin concentrations up to approximately 12,500 ng/mL).

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A macroadenoma may be nonfunctional and not secrete prolactin.

 

Infrequently, a patient may have a nonfunctional macroadenoma but apparent hyperprolactinemia caused by the presence of macroprolactin (prolactin bound to immunoglobulin). To determine this, order MCRPL / Macroprolactin, Serum.

 

For assays employing antibodies, the possibility exists for interference by human antianimal antibodies (ie, heterophile antibodies) in the patient sample. Patients who have been regularly exposed to animals or have received immunotherapy or diagnostic procedures utilizing immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments may produce antibodies, eg, HAMA, that interfere with immunoassays. This may falsely elevate or falsely decrease the results.

 

Interference due to extremely high titers of antibodies to analyte-specific antibodies, streptavidin or ruthenium can occur.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Winter WE, McCormack A, Bertholf RL: Chapter 65: Pituitary function and pathophysiology. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Sixth edition. Edited by N Rafai, AR Horvath, CT Wittwer. Elsevier, 2018, pp 1492-1529

2. Schoft C, Schofl-Siegert B, Hinrich Karstens J, et al: Falsely low serum prolactin in two cases of invasive macroprolactinoma. Pituitary 2002;5:261-265

3. Casaneuva FF, Molitch ME, Schlecte JA, et al: Guidelines of the Pituitary Society for the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas. Clin Endocrinol 2006;65:265-273

4. Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, et al: Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;96(2):273-288

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The Roche Cobas e immunoassay Prolactin II method employs 2 monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against prolactin. A biotinylated monoclonal antibody and a second monoclonal antibody labeled with a ruthenium complex react with prolactin in the sample to form a sandwich complex. After the addition of streptavidin-coated microparticles, the complex becomes bound to the solid phase via interaction of biotin and streptavidin. Application of a voltage to the electrode then induces chemiluminescent emission, which is measured.(Package insert: Roche E170/Cobas e601/e602 Prolactin II)

 

Dilution of serum sample is performed (10-, 100-, and 400-fold dilution) using manufacturer-recommended diluent and recovery of prolactin is compared to the prolactin concentration in neat sample. Acceptable recovery is defined as 100 + or - 20% recovery after dilution of serum.

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

6 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84146

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PLPMA Prolactin, Pituitary Macroadenoma 20568-2
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
PRLR Prolactin, S 20568-2
CMT89 Comment 48767-8

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports