Test Catalog

Test Id : COGMF

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Children's Oncology Group Enrollment Testing, FISH, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of pediatric bone marrow and peripheral blood specimens by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe analysis for classic rearrangements and chromosomal copy number changes associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients being considered for enrolment in Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials and research protocols

 

As an adjunct to conventional chromosome studies in performed in pediatric patients with AML being considered for enrollment in COG protocols

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
COGMB Probe, Each Additional (COGMF) No, (Bill Only) No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test is only performed on specimens from pediatric patients being considered for enrollment in a Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol.

 

The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel includes testing for the following abnormalities using the FISH probes listed:

inv(16), [M4, Eos], MYH11/CBFB

t(8;21), [M2], RUNX1T1/RUNX1

t(15;17), [M3], PML/RARA

11q23 rearrangement, [M0-M7], MLL (KMT2A)

t(6;9), [M2,M4], DEK/NUP214

inv(3) or t(3;3), [M1,2,4,6,7], RPN1/MECOM

t(8;16), [M4,M5], KAT6A/CREBBP

t(1;22), [M7], RBM15/MKL1

-5/5q-, D5S630/EGR1

-7/7q-, D7Z1/ D7S486

12p13 rearrangement, ETV6

inv(16), GLIS2/CBFA2T3

11p15.4 rearrangement, NUP98

 

When an MLL (KMT2A) rearrangement is identified, reflex testing will be performed to identify the translocation partner. Probes include identification of:

t(4;11)(q21;q23) AFF1/MLL

t(6;11)(q27;q23) MLLT4(AFDN)/MLL

t(9;11)(p22;q23) MLLT3/MLL

t(10;11)(p12;q23) MLLT10/MLL

t(11;16)(q23;p13.3) MLL/CREBBP

t(11;19)(q23;p13.1)

MLL/ELL

t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) MLL/MLLT1.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra MECOM signal is identified, the MECOM/RUNX1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(3;21)(q26.2;q22) rearrangement.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra RPN1 signal is identified, reflex testing using the PRDM16/RPN1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(1;3)(p36;q21).

 

In the absence of MYH11/CBFB fusion, when an extra CBFB signal is identified, reflex testing will be performed using the CBFB break-apart probe set to evaluate for the presence or absence of an CBFB rearrangement.

 

In the absence of PML/RARA fusion, when an extra or atypical RARA signal is identified, testing using a break-apart RARA probe set will be performed to identify a potential variant translocation involving RARA; example: t(17;var)( q21;?).

 

When an ETV6 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the MNX1/ETV6 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;12)(q36;p13) rearrangement.

 

When a NUP98 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the HOXA9/NUP98 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;11)(p15;p15.4) rearrangement.

 

The following algorithms are available, see Special Instructions:

-Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage Testing Algorithm

-Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Testing Algorithm

-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Guideline to Diagnosis and Follow-up

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

COG, AML, FISH

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

-5 (monosomy 5)

-7 (monosomy 7)

5q- (5q deletion)

7q- (7q deletion)

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)

AML-M0

AML-M1

AML-M2

AML-M3

AML-M4

AML-M4eo

AML-M5

AML-M7

inv(16) - inv(16) - MYH11/CBFB

inv(3) - inv(3) - RPN1/MECOM or RPN1/EVI

MLL or KMT2A (11q23) rearrangement

t(1;22)(p13.3;q13.1q13.2) - RBM15/MKL1

t(1;3)(p36.3;q21.3) - PRDM16/RPN1

t(10;11)(p13;q23) - MLLT10/MLL or AF10/MLL

t(11;16)(q23;p13.3) - MLL/CREBBP

t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) - MLL/ELL

t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) - MLL/MLLT1 or MLL/ENL

t(15;17)(q24.1;q21) - PML/RARA

t(16;16)(p13.1;q22) - MYH11/CBFB

t(3;21)(q26.2;q22) - MECOM/RUNX1or EVI1/AML1

t(3;3)(q21.3;q26.2) - RPN1/MECOM or RPN1/EVI1

t(4;11)(q21;q23) - AFF1/MLL or AF4/MLL

t(6;9)(p23;q34) - DEK/NUP214 or DEK/CAN

t(7;11)(p15;p15.4) - HOXA9/NUP98

t(8;16)(p11.2;p13.3) - KAT6A/CREBBP or MYST3/CREBBP

t(8;21)(q22;q22) - RUNX1T1/RUNX1 or ETO/AML1

t(9;11)(p22;q23) - MLLT3/MLL or AF9/MLL

NUP98 rearrangement

t(6;11)(q27;q23) - MLLT4(AFDN)/MLL or AF6/MLL

inv(16)(p24.3;p13.3) - GLIS2/CBFA2T3

Children's Oncology Group, COG

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test is only performed on specimens from pediatric patients being considered for enrollment in a Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol.

 

The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel includes testing for the following abnormalities using the FISH probes listed:

inv(16), [M4, Eos], MYH11/CBFB

t(8;21), [M2], RUNX1T1/RUNX1

t(15;17), [M3], PML/RARA

11q23 rearrangement, [M0-M7], MLL (KMT2A)

t(6;9), [M2,M4], DEK/NUP214

inv(3) or t(3;3), [M1,2,4,6,7], RPN1/MECOM

t(8;16), [M4,M5], KAT6A/CREBBP

t(1;22), [M7], RBM15/MKL1

-5/5q-, D5S630/EGR1

-7/7q-, D7Z1/ D7S486

12p13 rearrangement, ETV6

inv(16), GLIS2/CBFA2T3

11p15.4 rearrangement, NUP98

 

When an MLL (KMT2A) rearrangement is identified, reflex testing will be performed to identify the translocation partner. Probes include identification of:

t(4;11)(q21;q23) AFF1/MLL

t(6;11)(q27;q23) MLLT4(AFDN)/MLL

t(9;11)(p22;q23) MLLT3/MLL

t(10;11)(p12;q23) MLLT10/MLL

t(11;16)(q23;p13.3) MLL/CREBBP

t(11;19)(q23;p13.1)

MLL/ELL

t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) MLL/MLLT1.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra MECOM signal is identified, the MECOM/RUNX1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(3;21)(q26.2;q22) rearrangement.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra RPN1 signal is identified, reflex testing using the PRDM16/RPN1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(1;3)(p36;q21).

 

In the absence of MYH11/CBFB fusion, when an extra CBFB signal is identified, reflex testing will be performed using the CBFB break-apart probe set to evaluate for the presence or absence of an CBFB rearrangement.

 

In the absence of PML/RARA fusion, when an extra or atypical RARA signal is identified, testing using a break-apart RARA probe set will be performed to identify a potential variant translocation involving RARA; example: t(17;var)( q21;?).

 

When an ETV6 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the MNX1/ETV6 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;12)(q36;p13) rearrangement.

 

When a NUP98 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the HOXA9/NUP98 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;11)(p15;p15.4) rearrangement.

 

The following algorithms are available, see Special Instructions:

-Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage Testing Algorithm

-Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Testing Algorithm

-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Guideline to Diagnosis and Follow-up

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

This test is only performed on specimens from pediatric patients being considered for enrollment in a Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol. If this test is ordered and the laboratory is informed that the patient is not on a Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol, this test will be canceled and automatically reordered by the laboratory as AMLPF / Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), FISH, Pediatric, Varies.

 

For children in whom disease relapse or a secondary myeloid neoplasm is a concern and enrollment in a new COG protocol is being considered; order COGBM / Chromosome Analysis, Hematologic Disorders, Children's Oncology Group Enrollment Testing, Bone Marrow.

Shipping Instructions

Advise Express Mail or equivalent if not on courier service.

Necessary Information

1. A reason for testing, a flow cytometry and/or a bone marrow pathology report, and a Children's Oncology Group (COG) registration number and protocol number should be submitted with each specimen. The laboratory will not reject testing if this information is not provided, but appropriate testing and interpretation may be compromised or delayed. If this information is not provided, an appropriate indication for testing may be entered by Mayo Clinic Laboratories.

2. If a patient has received an opposite sex bone marrow transplant prior to specimen collection for this protocol, note this information on the request.

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
GC014 Specimen Whole blood ACD
Bone marrow ACD
GC013 Reason for Referral

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Preferred:

Specimen Type: Bone marrow

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Green top (heparin) or lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 2 to 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. It is preferable to send the first aspirate from the bone marrow collection.

2. Invert several times to mix bone marrow.

 

Acceptable:

Specimen Type: Blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Green top (heparin) or lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 6 mL

Collection Instructions: Invert several times to mix blood.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 2 mL

Bone Marrow: 1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Ambient (preferred)
Refrigerated

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of pediatric bone marrow and peripheral blood specimens by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe analysis for classic rearrangements and chromosomal copy number changes associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients being considered for enrolment in Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials and research protocols

 

As an adjunct to conventional chromosome studies in performed in pediatric patients with AML being considered for enrollment in COG protocols

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test is only performed on specimens from pediatric patients being considered for enrollment in a Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol.

 

The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel includes testing for the following abnormalities using the FISH probes listed:

inv(16), [M4, Eos], MYH11/CBFB

t(8;21), [M2], RUNX1T1/RUNX1

t(15;17), [M3], PML/RARA

11q23 rearrangement, [M0-M7], MLL (KMT2A)

t(6;9), [M2,M4], DEK/NUP214

inv(3) or t(3;3), [M1,2,4,6,7], RPN1/MECOM

t(8;16), [M4,M5], KAT6A/CREBBP

t(1;22), [M7], RBM15/MKL1

-5/5q-, D5S630/EGR1

-7/7q-, D7Z1/ D7S486

12p13 rearrangement, ETV6

inv(16), GLIS2/CBFA2T3

11p15.4 rearrangement, NUP98

 

When an MLL (KMT2A) rearrangement is identified, reflex testing will be performed to identify the translocation partner. Probes include identification of:

t(4;11)(q21;q23) AFF1/MLL

t(6;11)(q27;q23) MLLT4(AFDN)/MLL

t(9;11)(p22;q23) MLLT3/MLL

t(10;11)(p12;q23) MLLT10/MLL

t(11;16)(q23;p13.3) MLL/CREBBP

t(11;19)(q23;p13.1)

MLL/ELL

t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) MLL/MLLT1.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra MECOM signal is identified, the MECOM/RUNX1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(3;21)(q26.2;q22) rearrangement.

 

In the absence of RPN1/MECOM fusion, when an extra RPN1 signal is identified, reflex testing using the PRDM16/RPN1 probe set will be considered to identify a potential t(1;3)(p36;q21).

 

In the absence of MYH11/CBFB fusion, when an extra CBFB signal is identified, reflex testing will be performed using the CBFB break-apart probe set to evaluate for the presence or absence of an CBFB rearrangement.

 

In the absence of PML/RARA fusion, when an extra or atypical RARA signal is identified, testing using a break-apart RARA probe set will be performed to identify a potential variant translocation involving RARA; example: t(17;var)( q21;?).

 

When an ETV6 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the MNX1/ETV6 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;12)(q36;p13) rearrangement.

 

When a NUP98 rearrangement is identified, reflex testing using the HOXA9/NUP98 probe set will be performed to identify a potential t(7;11)(p15;p15.4) rearrangement.

 

The following algorithms are available, see Special Instructions:

-Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage Testing Algorithm

-Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Testing Algorithm

-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Guideline to Diagnosis and Follow-up

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common adult leukemias, with almost 10,000 new cases diagnosed per year. AML also comprises 15% of pediatric acute leukemia and accounts for the majority of infant (<1 year old) leukemia.

 

Several recurrent chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in AML. The most common chromosome abnormalities associated with AML include t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), and abnormalities of the MLL (KMT2A) gene at 11q23. The most common genes juxtaposed with MLL through translocation events in AML include MLTT4(AFDN)- t(6;11), MLLT3- t(9;11), MLLT10- t(10;11), and ELL- t(11;19p13.1).

 

AML can also evolve from myelodysplasia (MDS). Thus, the common chromosome abnormalities associated with MDS can also be identified in AML, which include: inv(3), -5/5q-, -7/7q-, and 17p. Overall, the recurrent chromosome abnormalities identified in patients with AML are observed in approximately 60% of diagnostic AML cases.

 

Conventional chromosome analysis is the gold standard for identification of the common, recurrent chromosome abnormalities in AML. However, some of the subtle rearrangements can be missed by karyotype, including inv(16) and MLL rearrangements.

 

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of nonproliferating (interphase) cells can be used to detect the common chromosome abnormalities observed in patients with AML. The abnormalities have diagnostic and prognostic relevance, and FISH testing can also be used to track response to therapy.

 

Metaphase FISH confirmation of classic translocations that are cryptic and not visually detectable by chromosome analysis [ie, t(6;11) associated with KMT2A/MLLT4(AFDN) fusion] is performed as required by Children's Oncology Group (COG) and is included as part of the electronic case submission by the Mayo Clinic Genomics Laboratory to COG for central review.

 

Additional cytogenetic techniques such as chromosomal microarray (CMAH / Chromosomal Microarray, Hematologic Disorders, Varies) may be helpful to resolve questions related to ploidy (hyperdiploid clone vs doubled hypodiploid clone).

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A neoplastic clone is detected when the percent of cells with an abnormality exceeds the normal reference range for any given probe.

 

The absence of an abnormal clone does not rule out the presence of a neoplastic disorder.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

This test is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and it is best used as an adjunct to existing clinical and pathologic information.

 

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not a substitute for conventional chromosome studies because the latter detects many chromosome abnormalities associated with other hematological disorders that would be missed by this FISH panel test.

 

Bone marrow is the preferred specimen type for this FISH test. If bone marrow is not available, a blood specimen may be used if there are malignant cells in the blood specimen (as verified by a hematopathologist).

Supportive Data

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Grimwade D, Hills RK, Moorman AV, et al: Refinement of cytogenetics classification in acute myeloid leukemia: determination of prognostic significance or rare recurring chromosomal abnormalities among 5876 younger adult patients treated in the United Kingdom Research Council trials. Blood. 2010 Jul 22;116(3):354-365

2. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al. eds: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC Press; 2017

3. Dohner H, Estey E, Grimwade D, et al: Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel. Blood. 2017 Jan 26;129(4):424-447. doi: 10.1182/blood-2016-08-733196

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This test is performed using commercially available and laboratory-developed probes. Deletion or monosomy of chromosomes 5 and 7 are detected using enumeration strategy probes. Rearrangements involving MLL (KMT2A), NUP98, ETV6, CBFB, and RARA are detected using a dual-color break-apart (BAP) strategy probe. Dual-color, dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) strategy probe sets are used to detect inv(3), inv(16), t(8;21), t(15;17), t(6;9), t(8;16), t(3;21), t(1;3), t(1;22), t(7;11), t(7;12), and in reflex testing when rearrangements of the MLL gene are detected. For enumeration and BAP strategy probe sets, 100 interphase nuclei are scored; 200 interphase nuclei are scored when D-FISH probes are used. All results are expressed as the percent abnormal nuclei.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

7 to 10 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

4 weeks

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

88271 x 2, 88275, 88291-FISH Probe, Analysis, Interpretation; 1 probe set

88271 x 2, 88275-FISH Probe, Analysis; each additional probe set (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
COGMF COG, AML, FISH In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
602276 Result Summary 50397-9
602277 Interpretation 69965-2
602278 Result Table 93356-4
602279 Result 62356-1
GC013 Reason for Referral 42349-1
GC014 Specimen 31208-2
602281 Source 31208-2
602282 Method 85069-3
602283 Additional Information 48767-8
602284 Disclaimer 62364-5
602285 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports