Test Catalog

Test Id : GAST

Gastrin, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of patients with achlorhydria or pernicious anemia

 

Investigation of patients suspected of having Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

 

Diagnosis of gastrinoma

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Automated Chemiluminescent Immunometric Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Gastrin, S

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation:

1. Fasting (8 hours) required

2. For 12 hours before specimen collection, do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.

3. If medically feasible, proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) therapy should be discontinued 1 week before measurement of serum gastrin levels.

4. Drugs that interfere with gastrointestinal motility (eg, opioids) should be discontinued for at least 2 weeks before serum gastrin testing.

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. If multiple specimens are collected, submit each vial under a separate order.

2. Label specimens with corresponding collection time.

3. Centrifuge at refrigerated temperature within 2 hours of collection and immediately aliquot serum into plastic vial.

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send 1 of the following forms with the specimen:

-Oncology Test Request Form (T729)

-Benign Hematology Test Request Form (T755)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Frozen (preferred) 30 days
Refrigerated 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of patients with achlorhydria or pernicious anemia

 

Investigation of patients suspected of having Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

 

Diagnosis of gastrinoma

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Gastrin is a peptide hormone produced by mucosal G cells of the gastric antrum. It is synthesized as preprogastrin, cleaved to progastrin, which undergoes several posttranslational modifications, in particular sulfation, and is finally processed into the mature 34-amino acid, gastrin-34. Gastrin-34 may be cleaved further into the shorter 17-amino acid, gastrin-17. Either may be secreted as a C-terminal amidated or unamidated isoform. A number of additional, smaller gastrin fragments, as well as gastrin molecules with atypical posttranslational modifications (eg, absent sulfation), may also be secreted in small quantities. Gastrin half-life is short, 5 minutes for amidated gastrin-17, and 20 to 25 minutes for amidated gastrin-34. Elimination occurs through peptidase cleavage and renal excretion.

 

Gastrin-17 I (nonsulfated form) and gastrin-17 II (sulfated) appear equipotent. Their biological effects are chiefly associated with the amidated isoforms and consist of promotion of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation to acid-secreting cells, direct promotion of acid secretion, and indirect stimulation of acid production through histamine release. In addition, gastrin stimulates gastric motility and release of pepsin and intrinsic factor. Most gastrin isoforms with atypical posttranslational modifications and most small gastrin fragments display reduced or absent bioactivity. This assay measures predominately gastrin-17. Larger precursors and smaller fragments have little or no cross-reactivity in the assay.

 

Intraluminal stomach pH is the main factor regulating gastrin production and secretion. Rising gastric pH levels result in increasing serum gastrin levels, while falling pH levels are associated with mounting somatostatin production in gastric D cells. Somatostatin, in turn, downregulates gastrin synthesis and release. Other weaker factors that stimulate gastrin secretion are gastric distention, protein-rich foods, and elevated secretin or serum calcium levels.

 

Serum gastrin levels may also be elevated in gastric distention due to gastric outlet obstruction and in a variety of conditions that lead to real or functional gastric hypo- or achlorhydria (gastrin is secreted in an attempted compensatory response to achlorhydria). These include atrophic gastritis with or without pernicious anemia, a disorder characterized by destruction of acid-secreting (parietal) cells of the stomach; gastric dumping syndrome; and surgically excluded gastric antrum. In atrophic gastritis, the chronic cell-proliferative stimulus of the secondary hypergastrinemia may contribute to the increased gastric cancer risk observed in this condition.

 

Gastrin levels are pathologically increased in gastrinoma, a type of neuroendocrine tumor that can occur in the pancreas (20%-40%) or in the duodenum (50%-70%). The triad of non-beta islet cell tumor of the pancreas (gastrinoma), hypergastrinemia, and severe ulcer disease is referred to as the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over 50% of gastrinomas are malignant and can metastasize to regional lymph nodes and the liver. About 25% of gastrinomas occur as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome and are associated with hyperparathyroidism and pituitary adenomas. These MEN 1-associated tumors have been observed to occur at an earlier age than sporadic tumors and often follow a more benign course.

 

Basal and secretin-stimulated serum gastrin measurements are the best laboratory tests for gastrinoma.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<100 pg/mL

There is no evidence that fasting serum gastrin levels differ between adults and children. Although 8-hour fasts are difficult or impossible to enforce in small children, serum gastrin levels after shorter fasting periods (3-8 hours) may be 50% to 60% higher than the 8-hour fasting value.

 

For SI unit Reference Values, see https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/order-tests/si-unit-conversion.html

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Achlorhydria is the most common cause of elevated serum gastrin levels. The most common cause for achlorhydria is treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers, nonulcer dyspepsia, or gastroesophageal reflux with proton pump inhibitors (substituted benzimidazoles, eg, omeprazole). Other causes of hypo- and achlorhydria include chronic atrophic gastritis with or without pernicious anemia, gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and previous surgical or traumatic vagotomy.

 

If serum B12 levels are significantly low (<150 ng/L), even if the intrinsic factor blocking antibody tests are negative, a serum gastrin level above the reference range makes it likely the patient is suffering from pernicious anemia.

 

Hypergastrinemia with normal or increased gastric acid secretion is suspicious of a gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). Gastrin levels less than 100 pg/mL are observed so uncommonly in untreated gastrinoma patients with intact upper gastrointestinal anatomy as to virtually exclude the diagnosis. The majority (>60%) of patients with gastrinoma have very significantly elevated serum gastrin levels (>400 pg/mL). Levels above 1000 pg/mL in a gastric- or duodenal-ulcer patient without previous gastric surgery, on no drugs, who has a basal gastric acid output of greater than 15 mmol/hour (>5 mmol/hour in patients with prior acid-reducing surgery) are considered diagnostic of gastrinoma. If there are any doubts about gastric acid output, an infusion of 0.1 M HCl into the stomach reduces the serum gastrin in patients with achlorhydria, but not in those with gastrinoma.

 

Other conditions that may be associated with hypergastrinemia in the face of normal or increased gastric acid secretion include gastric and, rarely, duodenal ulcers, gastric outlet obstruction, bypassed gastric antrum, and gastric dumping. Occasionally, diabetes mellitus, autonomic neuropathy with gastroparesis, pheochromocytoma, rheumatoid arthritis, thyrotoxicosis, and paraneoplastic syndromes can also result in hypergastrinemia with normal acid secretion. None of these conditions tends to be associated with fasting serum gastrin levels above 400 pg/mL, and levels above 1000 pg/mL are virtually never observed.

 

Several provocative tests can be used to distinguish these patients from individuals with gastrinomas. Patients with gastrinoma, who have normal or only mildly to modestly increased fasting serum gastrin levels, respond with exaggerated serum gastrin increases to intravenous infusions of secretin or calcium. Because of its greater safety, secretin infusion is preferred. The best validated protocol calls for a baseline fasting gastrin measurement, followed by an injection of 2 clinical units of secretin per kg body weight (0.4 microgram/kg) over 1 minute and further serum gastrin specimens at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 30-minutes postinjection. A peak gastrin increase of more than 200 pg/mL above the baseline value has greater than 85% sensitivity and near 100% specificity for gastrinoma. Secretin or calcium infusion tests are not carried out in the clinical laboratory, but are usually performed at gastroenterology or endocrine testing units under the supervision of a physician. They are progressively being replaced (or supplemented) by imaging procedures, particularly duodenal and pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound.

 

All patients with confirmed gastrinoma should be evaluated for possible multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), which is the underlying cause in approximately 25% of cases. If clinical, biochemical, or genetic testing confirms MEN 1, other family members need to be screened.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Isolated serum gastrin levels can only be interpreted in fasting patients; nonfasting specimens are uninterpretable.

 

Artifactual hypergastrinemia may be observed in fasting patients who have undergone procedures that result in temporary gastric distention or dysmotility (eg, after gastroscopy).

 

Renal failure prolongs the serum half-life of gastrin and is associated with increased serum gastrin levels.

 

Drugs that interfere with gastric acid secretion, in particular proton pump inhibitors (eg, omeprazole, pantoprazole, dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole), can lead to significant elevations of serum gastrin levels often above the normal range. These drugs can be discontinued, if feasible, for at least 1 week before serum gastrin measurement in order to avoid gastrin elevation.

 

Drugs that interfere with gastrointestinal motility (eg, opioids) may also interfere with serum gastrin testing.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Ellison EC, Johnson JA: The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a comprehensive review of historical, scientific, and clinical considerations. Curr Probl Surg. 2009 Jan;46:13-106. doi: 10.1067/j.cpsurg.2008.09.001

2. McColl KE, Gillen D, El-Omar E: The role of gastrin in ulcer pathogenesis. Ballieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2000 Feb;14:13-26. doi: 10.1053/bega.1999.0056

3. Dockray GJ, Varro A, Dimaline R, Wang T: The gastrins: their production and biological activities. Ann Rev Phys. 2001;63:119-139. doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.119

4. Brandi ML, Gagel R, Angeli A, et al: Consensus: guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;86:5658-5671. doi: 10.1210/jcem.86.12.8070

5. Ward PC: Modern approaches to the investigation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Lab Med. 2002 Jun;22:435-445. doi: 10.1016/s0272-2712(01)00003-8

6. Dacha S, Razvi M, Massaad J, Cai Q, Wehbi M: Hypergastrinemia. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2015 Aug;3(3):201-208. doi: 10.1093/gastro/gov004

7. Ahmed M, Ahmed S: Functional, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of gastrointestinal hormones. Gastroenterology Res. 2019 Oct;12(5):233-244. doi: 10.14740/gr1219

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The Immulite 2000 Gastrin assay is a chemiluminescent, enzyme-labeled immunometric assay based on a ligand-labeled murine monoclonal capture antibody specific for gastrin and separation by antiligand-coated solid phase. The patient sample along with the ligand-labeled, antigastrin monoclonal antibody, an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antigastrin antibody, and an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antigastrin antibody are simultaneously incubated in the presence of the immobilized antiligand bead in a reaction tube. During the 60-minute incubation, gastrin molecules in the sample form antibody sandwich complexes that, in turn, bind to antiligand on the solid phase. Unbound conjugate is then removed by a centrifugal wash, after which luminogenic substrate is added and the reaction tube is incubated for an additional 5 minutes. The chemiluminescent substrate, a phosphate ester of adamantyl dioxetane, undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of alkaline phosphatase to yield an unstable intermediate. The continuous production of the intermediate results in the sustained emission of light. The bound complex and, thus, also the photon output, as measured by the luminometer is proportional to the concentration of gastrin in the sample.(Instruction manual: Immulite 2000 Gastrin. Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics; PIL2KGA-15)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82941

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GAST Gastrin, S 2333-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
GAST Gastrin, S 2333-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports