Test Catalog

Test Id : SCLAM

Chlamydia Serology, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial infections

 

This test is not intended for medical-legal use.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Includes Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Micro-Immunofluorescent Antibody (MIF) Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Chlamydia Serology, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Bedsonia

Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies

Chlamydophila pneumonia

Chlamydophila psittaci

TWAR

LGV (Lymphogranuloma Venereum)

Ornithosis

Psittacosis

Chlamydia Antibodies Differentiation Panel

Chlamydia Antibodies, IgG and IgM

Chlamydia Differentiation Antibody Panel

Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR)

Chlamydia pneumoniae, IgG and IgM

Chlamydia psittaci, IgG and IgM

Chlamydia Species Differentiation Antibody Panel

Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody

Chlamydia trachomatis, IgG and IgM

Chlamydia TWAR

Chlamydophila

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila psattaci

Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) Antibodies

Psittacosis Antibodies

TWAR (Chlamydia pneumoniae)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Includes Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube: 

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.2 mL

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.15 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 30 days
Frozen 30 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial infections

 

This test is not intended for medical-legal use.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Includes Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Members of the family Chlamydiaceae are small, nonmotile, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms that grow in the cytoplasm of host cells. Two genera of clinical importance are Chlamydia, which includes Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila, which includes Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila psittaci. These organisms share many features of bacteria and are susceptible to antibiotic therapy. They are also similar to viruses, requiring living cells for multiplication.

 

The chlamydial life cycle can be divided into 2 distinct phases: an extracellular, nonreplicating, infectious stage and an obligate intracellular, replicating, noninfectious stage. The infectious form, or elementary body (EB), attaches to the target cell membrane and enters the cell via a phagosome. After cell entry, the EB reorganizes into reticulate particles (forming inclusion bodies) and binary fission begins. After 18 to 24 hours, reticulate particles condense to form EBs. These new EBs are released, beginning another infection cycle.

 

C psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a disease characterized by pneumonia, headache, altered mentation, and hepatosplenomegaly. Psittacosis is acquired by airborne transmission from infected birds.

 

C pneumoniae (formerly known as Taiwan acute respiratory agent: TWAR and, more recently, as Chlamydia pneumoniae) causes pneumonia in humans. It is unique because it is a primary pathogen of humans, is spread from human to human, and apparently has no animal or bird host. Chlamydophila pneumoniae is responsible for approximately 10% of pneumonia cases.

 

C trachomatis has been implicated in a wide variety of infections in humans. It is a common cause of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis, and many systemic complications of chlamydial infections have been described. In females, this organism is a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, and endometritis. In males, epididymitis and Reiter syndrome occur. Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by C trachomatis. It presents with a transient primary genital lesion followed by suppurative regional lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, severe proctitis or proctocolitis may develop. C trachomatis also causes ophthalmologic infections, such as trachoma (rare in the United States), adult inclusion conjunctivitis and inclusion conjunctivitis in neonates. These disorders have traditionally been diagnosed by cytologic detection or culture. However, molecular detection methods (CTRNA / Chlamydia trachomatis by Nucleic Acid Amplification [HOLOGIC], Varies) may now represent a more sensitive diagnostic approach.

 

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (perihepatitis) has been associated with chlamydiae.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

IgG: <1:64

IgM: <1:10

 

Chlamydophila psittaci

IgG: <1:64

IgM: <1:10

 

Chlamydia trachomatis

IgG: <1:64

IgM: <1:10

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

IgG:

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

> or =1:512

IgG endpoint titers of 1:512 or more are considered presumptive evidence of current infection.

 

<1:512 and > or =1:64

A single specimen endpoint titer of  from 1:64 to 1:512 should be considered evidence of infection at an undetermined time. A second specimen drawn 10 to 21 days after the original draw should be tested in parallel with the first. If the second specimen exhibits a titer 1:512 or more or a 4-fold increase over that of the initial specimen, current (acute) infection is indicated. Unchanging titers from 1:64 to 1:512 suggest past infection.

 

<1:64

IgG endpoint titers below 1:64 suggest that the patient does not have a current infection. These antibody levels may be found in patients with either no history of chlamydial infection or those with past infection whose antibody levels have dropped below detectable levels.

 

Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibody is detectable in 25% to 45% of adults tested.

 

Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

> or =1:64

IgG endpoint titers of 1:64 or more are considered presumptive evidence of current infection.

 

<1:64

IgG endpoint titers below 1:64 suggest that the patient does not have a current infection. These antibody levels may be found in patients with either no history of chlamydial infection or those with past infection whose antibody levels have dropped below detectable levels.

 

IgM

Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Chlamydia trachomatis

> or =1:10

IgM endpoint titers of 1:10 or more are considered presumptive evidence of infection.

 

<1:10

IgM endpoint titers below 1:10 suggest that the patient does not have a current infection. These antibody levels may be found in patients with either no history of chlamydial infection or those with past infection whose antibody levels have dropped below detectable levels.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Antichlamydial IgG can persist for years. All results from chlamydial serologies must correlate with clinical history and other data available to the physician.

 

Specimens collected too early during primary infection may not contain detectable antibodies. If chlamydial infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected 10 to 21 days later and tested in parallel with the original specimen.

 

During a primary Chlamydia infection, the early antibody response may be cross-reactive with multiple Chlamydia species.

 

The Chlamydia microimmunofluorescent antibody assay utilizes serotypes D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis. Sera from suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) should be tested by a Lymphogranuloma Venereum Differentiation Antibody Panel. LGV testing is not performed by Mayo Clinic Laboratories; call 800-533-1710 for further assistance.

 

Due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of Chlamydia serologic tests, patients with suspected C trachomatis infection should be tested by a molecular method (eg, CTRNA / Chlamydia trachomatis by Nucleic Acid Amplification [HOLOGIC], Varies) when clinical manifestations are present.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Movahed MR: Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis: a review. J South Carolina Med Assoc. 1999;95:303-308

2. Smith T: Chlamydia. In: Schmidt N, Emmons R, eds. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. 6th ed. APHA; 1989: 1165-1198

3. Sheffield PA, Moore DE, Voigt LF, et al: The association between Chlamydia trachomatis serology and pelvic damage in women with tubal ectopic gestations. Fertil Steril. 1993;60:970-975

4. Batteiger BE, Tang M: Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma and urogenital infections). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020:2301-2319

5. Schlossberg D: Psittacosis (due to Chlamydia psittaci). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020:2320-2322

6. Hammerschlag MR, Kohlhoff SA, Gaydos CA: Chlamydia pneumoniae. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020:2323-2331

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The microimmunofluorescent antibody assay is a 2-stage "sandwich" procedure. In the first stage, the patient serum is diluted in phosphate-buffered saline, added to appropriate slide wells in contact with the substrate, and incubated. After incubation, the slide is washed in buffered saline to remove unbound serum antibodies. In the second stage, each antigen well is overlaid with fluorescein-labeled antibody to IgG or IgM. The slide is incubated, allowing antigen-antibody complexes to react with the fluorescein-labeled anti-IgG. After the slide is washed, dried, and mounted, it is examined using fluorescence microscopy. Positive reactions appear as bright apple-green fluorescent elementary bodies with a background matrix of yolk sac. Semiquantitative endpoint titers are obtained by testing serial dilutions of positive specimens.(Schachter J: Chlamydiae [Psittacosis-Lymphogranuloma Venereum-Trachome Group]. In: Lennette E, Balows A, Hausler W, Shadomy H, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 4th ed. ASM Press; 1985: 856-861; Smith T: Chlamydia. In: Schmidt N, Emmons R, eds. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. 6th ed. APHA; 1989: 1165-1198; package insert: Anti-Chlamydia MIF [IgA, IgG or IgM]. Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiadnostika AG; Version 12/16/2019)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86631 x 3-IgG

86632 x 3-IgM

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.
SCLAM Chlamydia Serology, S 77166-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
185 C. pneumoniae IgG 6913-8
186 C. pneumoniae IgM 6914-6
190 C. trachomatis IgG 6919-5
191 C. trachomatis IgM 6920-3
187 C. psittaci IgG 6916-1
188 C. psittaci IgM 6917-9

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports