Test Catalog

Test Id : 1A2Q

Cytochrome P450 1A2 Genotype, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying individuals who are poor, intermediate, normal (extensive) or rapid metabolizers of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 to assist drug therapy decision making

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Allelic Discrimination Analysis

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

CYP1A2 Genotype, V

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

1A2

CYP1A2

Cytochrome P450 1A2 Genotyping

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

Testing is available as the single gene assay (this test) or as a part of a focused pharmacogenomics panel, which includes testing for the following genes: CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, 3A5, 4F2, SLCO1B1, and VKORC1.

 

Order PGXQP / Focused Pharmacogenomics Panel, Varies if multiple pharmacogenomic genotype testing is desired.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Multiple genotype tests can be performed on a single specimen after a single extraction. See Multiple Genotype Test List in Special Instructions for a list of tests that can be ordered together.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred) 9 days/Refrigerated 30 days

 

Specimen Type: Saliva

Patient Preparation: Patient should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum 30 minutes prior to collection.

Supplies: Saliva Swab Collection Kit (T786)

Specimen Volume: 1 Swab

Collection Instructions: Collect and send specimen per kit instructions.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient 30 days

 

Specimen Type: Extracted DNA

Container/Tube: 2 mL screw top tube

Specimen Volume: 100 mcL (microliters)

Collection Instructions:

1. The preferred volume is 100 mcL at a concentration of 50 ng/mcL.

2. Include concentration and volume on tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Frozen (preferred)/Ambient/Refrigerated

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send 1 of the following forms with the specimen:

-Neurology Specialty Testing Client Test Request (T732)

-Therapeutics Test Request (T831)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 0.4 mL

Saliva: 1 swab

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies (preferred)

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying individuals who are poor, intermediate, normal (extensive) or rapid metabolizers of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 to assist drug therapy decision making

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) family is involved in the primary metabolism of many drugs. The CYPs are a group of oxidative/dealkylating enzymes localized in the microsomes of many tissues including the intestines and liver. One of these CYP enzymes, CYP1A2, is wholly or partially responsible for the hydroxylation or dealkylation of many commonly prescribed drugs.

 

CYP1A2-mediated drug metabolism is highly variable. A number of variants have been identified in the CYP1A2 gene that results in increased, diminished, or abolished catalytic activity and substrate metabolism. The frequency of these variants varies by ethnicity.

 

Dosing of drugs that are metabolized through CYP1A2 may require adjustment based on the CYP1A2 genotype. Individuals who are poor metabolizers may require lower than usual doses to achieve optimal response, whereas individuals who are ultrarapid metabolizers may benefit from increased doses. CYP1A2 phenotype is predicted based upon the number of functional, partially functional, nonfunctional, and inducible alleles present in a sample. In the absence of clear guidance on dosing for various metabolizer phenotypes, patients with either rapid or poor metabolism also may benefit by switching to another comparable drug that is not primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 or by therapeutic drug monitoring where applicable.

 

The following table outlines the relationship between the variations (star alleles) detected in this assay and the effect on the activity of the enzyme produced by that allele.

CYP1A2 allele

Nucleotide change (legacy nomenclature)

cDNA nucleotide change (NM_000761.4)


Effect on enzyme metabolism(a)

*1

None (wild type)

None (wild type)

Normal (extensive) activity

*1F

-163C>A

c.-9-154C>A

Increased inducibility

*1K

-729C>T

c.-10+113C>T

Decreased activity and decreased inducibility

*6

5090C>T

c.1291C>T

No activity

*7

3533G>A

c.1253+1G>A

No activity

 

a. Effect of a specific allele on the activity of the CYP1A2 enzyme can only be estimated since the literature does not provide precise data.(1-5)

 

A complicating factor in correlating CYP1A2 genotype to CYP1A2 phenotype is that some drugs or their metabolites are inhibitors of CYP1A2 catalytic activity. These drugs may reduce CYP1A2 catalytic activity. Consequently, an individual may require a dose decrease greater than predicted based upon genotype alone. Another complicating factor is that CYP1A2 is inducible by several drugs and environmental agents (eg, cigarette smoke) and the degree of inducibility is under genetic control. It is important to interpret the results of testing in the context of other coadministered drugs and environmental factors.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be provided.

 

The genotype, with associated star alleles, is assigned using standard allelic nomenclature as published by the Pharmacogene Variation (PharmVar) Consortium.(6)

 

CYP1A2 activity is also dependent upon hepatic function status, as well as age. Renal function may be important for drugs that are excreted in urine. Patients may develop drug toxicity if hepatic or renal function is decreased. Drug metabolism is known to decrease with age. It is important to interpret the results of testing and dose adjustments in the context of hepatic and renal function and age.

 

For additional information regarding pharmacogenomic genes and their associated drugs, see Pharmacogenomic Associations Tables in Special Instructions. This resource also includes information regarding enzyme inhibitors and inducers, as well as potential alternate drug choices.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Rare variants may be present that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings (phenotype), additional testing should be considered.

 

Samples may contain donor DNA if obtained from patients who received non-leukoreduced blood transfusions or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results from samples obtained under these circumstances may not accurately reflect the recipient's genotype. For individuals who have received blood transfusions, the genotype usually reverts to that of the recipient within 6 weeks. For individuals who have received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a pretransplant DNA specimen is recommended for testing.

 

CYP1A2 genetic test results in patients who have undergone liver transplantation may not accurately reflect the patient's CYP1A2 status.

 

This method may not detect all variants that result in altered CYP1A2 activity. Therefore, absence of a detectable variant does not rule out the possibility that a patient has altered CYP1A2 metabolism due to other CYP1A2 variants that cannot be detected with this method. Furthermore, when 2 or more variants are identified, the cis-/trans- status (whether the variants are on the same or opposite chromosomes) is not always known. It should be noted that other laboratories may use different phenotype prediction methods as there is no consensus on this at this time. However, the method used here represents the findings of the majority of literature available at this time.

 

The frequency of variants which cause altered CYP1A2 metabolism has not been fully characterized in all ethnic groups. CYP1A2 enzyme activity may be inhibited or induced by a variety of substances, medications, or their metabolites.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Ito M, Katono Y, Oda A, Hirasawa N, Hiratsuka M: Functional characterization of 20 allelic variants of CYP1A2. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015 Jun;30(3):247-252. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2015.03.001

2. Zhou H, Josephy PD, Kim D, Guengerich FP: Functional characterization of four allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 1A2. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Feb;422(1):23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2003.11.019

3. Murayama N, Soyama A, Saito Y, et al: Six novel nonsynonymous CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms: catalytic activities of the naturally occurring variant enzymes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Mar;308(3):1219

4. Murayama N, Soyama A, Saito Y, et al: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;308(1):300-306. doi: 10.1124/jpet.103.055798

5. Saito Y, Hanioka N, Maekawa K, et al. Functional analysis of three CYP1A2 variants found in a Japanese population. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33(12):1905-1910. doi: 10.1124/dmd.105.005819

6. PharmVar. Pharmacogene Variation Consortium. Updated March 3, 2021. Accessed March 22, 2021. Available at www.pharmvar.org/

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Genomic DNA is extracted from whole blood or saliva. Genotyping for the CYP1A2 alleles is performed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based 5'-nuclease assay. Fluorescently labeled detection probes anneal to the target DNA. PCR is used to amplify the section of DNA that contains the variant. If the detection probe is an exact match to the target DNA, the 5'-nuclease polymerase degrades the probe, the reporter dye is released from the effects of the quencher dye, and a fluorescent signal is detected. Genotypes are assigned based on the allele-specific fluorescent signals that are detected.(Instruction manual: TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay User Guide. Applied Biosystems; Revision A.0; 01/2014)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Blood: Refrigerate; Saliva: Ambient; Extracted DNA: Frozen

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

0031U

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
1A2Q CYP1A2 Genotype, V 80687-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
610075 CYP1A2 Genotype 72884-0
610076 CYP1A2 Phenotype 94254-0
610077 Interpretation 69047-9
610078 Additional Information 48767-8
610079 Method 85069-3
610080 Disclaimer 62364-5
610081 Reviewed by 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports