Test Catalog

Test Id : MPAGP

Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Follow up for abnormal biochemical results suggestive of methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia

 

Establishing a molecular diagnosis for patients with methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia

 

Identifying variants within genes known to be associated with methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test utilizes next-generation sequencing to detect single nucleotide and copy number variants in 28 genes associated with methylmalonic aciduria-propionic aciduria: ABCD4, ACSF3, ALDH6A1, AMN, CD320, CUBN, DMGDH, CBLIF, HCFC1, LMBRD1, MCEE, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MMUT, PCCA, PCCB, PRDX1, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, TCN1, TCN2, THAP11, ZNF143. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel and Method Description for additional details.

 

Identification of a pathogenic variant may assist with diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, familial screening, and genetic counseling for methylmalonic aciduria and propionic aciduria.

 

Additional first-tier testing may be considered/recommended. For more information see Ordering Guidance.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
FIBR Fibroblast Culture Yes No
CRYOB Cryopreserve for Biochem Studies No No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture and cryopreservation for biochemical studies will be added at an additional charge.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Sequence Capture and Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sanger Sequencing.

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

MMA PA Combined Gene Panel

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

NextGen Sequencing Test

Combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria

Methylmalonic acidemia and homocysteinemia

Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria

Methylmalonic Acidemia

Methylmalonic Aciduria (MMA)

MMA (Methylmalonic Aciduria)

MMACHC

MMADHC

Propionic academia

PCCA

PCCB

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture and cryopreservation for biochemical studies will be added at an additional charge.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

Additional recommended first-tier tests to screen for methylmalonic acidemia  include plasma acylcarnitine profile (ACRN / Acylcarnitines, Quantitative, Plasma), quantitative plasma amino acids (AAQP / Amino Acids, Quantitative, Plasma), urine organic acids (OAU / Organic Acids Screen, Urine), and homocysteine (HCYSP / Homocysteine, Total, Plasma or HCYSS / Homocysteine, Total, Serum).

 

Customization of this panel and single gene analysis for any gene present on this panel is available. For more information see CGPH/ Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies.

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under FIBR / Fibroblast Culture, Tissue. An additional 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblast

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured fibroblast cells from a skin biopsy from another laboratory. Cultured cells from a prenatal specimen will not be accepted.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated (<24 hours)

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under FIBR / Fibroblast Culture, Tissue. An additional 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card-Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: PerkinElmer 226 (formerly Ahlstrom 226) filter paper, or Blood Spot Collection Card

Specimen Volume: 5 Blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient older than 1 year of age is finger stick. See Dried Blood Spot Collection Tutorial for how to collect blood spots: https://vimeo.com/508490782

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.

4. Due to lower concentration of DNA yielded from blood spot, it is possible that additional specimen may be required to complete testing.

 

Specimen Type: Saliva

Patient Preparation: Patient should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum 30 minutes prior to collection.

Supplies: Saliva Swab Collection Kit (T786)

Specimen Volume: 1 swab

Collection Instructions: Collect and send specimen per kit instructions.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient 30 days

Additional Information: Due to lower concentration of DNA yielded from saliva, it is possible that additional specimen may be required to complete testing.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing  (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Spanish) (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

See Specimen Required

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies (preferred)

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Follow up for abnormal biochemical results suggestive of methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia

 

Establishing a molecular diagnosis for patients with methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia

 

Identifying variants within genes known to be associated with methylmalonic acidemia or propionic acidemia, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test utilizes next-generation sequencing to detect single nucleotide and copy number variants in 28 genes associated with methylmalonic aciduria-propionic aciduria: ABCD4, ACSF3, ALDH6A1, AMN, CD320, CUBN, DMGDH, CBLIF, HCFC1, LMBRD1, MCEE, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MMUT, PCCA, PCCB, PRDX1, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, TCN1, TCN2, THAP11, ZNF143. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel and Method Description for additional details.

 

Identification of a pathogenic variant may assist with diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, familial screening, and genetic counseling for methylmalonic aciduria and propionic aciduria.

 

Additional first-tier testing may be considered/recommended. For more information see Ordering Guidance.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture and cryopreservation for biochemical studies will be added at an additional charge.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) are defects of propionate metabolism caused by deficiencies in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, respectively. The clinical phenotype includes vomiting, hypotonia, lethargy, apnea, hypothermia, and coma. The biochemical phenotype for MMA includes elevations of propionyl carnitine, methylmalonic acid, and methylcitric acid. Patients with PA will have elevations of propionyl carnitine and methylcitric acid with normal methylmalonic acid concentrations as the enzymatic defect is upstream of methylmalonic-CoA mutase. All known disorders of MMA and PA metabolism are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

 

Newborn screening for inborn errors of propionic acid metabolism relies on elevations of methionine and propionyl carnitine, which are reported as an elevation of C3. These analytes are not specific for this condition and are prone to false-positive results, leading to increased cost, stress, and anxiety for families who are subjected to follow-up testing. Homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and methylcitric acid are more specific markers for inborn errors of propionic acid metabolism (HCMM / Homocysteine (Total), Methylmalonic Acid, and Methylcitric Acid, Blood Spot).

 

For MMA, the preferred biochemical screening tests include plasma acylcarnitine profile (ACRN /  Acylcarnitines, Quantitative, Plasma), quantitative plasma amino acids (AAQP / Amino Acids, Quantitative, Plasma), urine organic acids (OAU / Organic Acids Screen, Urine), and homocysteine (HCYSP / Homocysteine, Total, Plasma or HCYSS / Homocysteine, Total, Serum).

 

Molecular genetic testing can be used to confirm a biochemical diagnosis for MMA or PA.

 

Treatment is most effective when tailored to the specific type of MMA or PA. For example, intramuscular injections of hydrocobalamin are critical in the treatment of Cbl C, whereas oral cyanocobalamin is effective for MMA mutase subtypes as well as other cobalamin subtypes. Acute treatment for MMA and PA is similar, consisting of dialysis and administration of nitrogen scavenger drugs to reduce ammonia concentration. Chronic management typically involves restriction of dietary protein with essential amino acid supplementation. More recently, liver transplantation has been used with success in treating some patients with MMA or PA.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Clinical Correlations:

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Misinterpretation of results may occur if the information provided is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

If testing was performed because of a clinically significant family history, it is often useful to first test an affected family member. Detection of at least one reportable variant in an affected family member would allow for more informative testing of at-risk individuals.

 

To discuss the availability of additional testing options or for assistance in the interpretation of these results, contact the Mayo Clinic Laboratory genetic counselors at 800-533-1710.

 

Technical Limitations:

Next-generation sequencing may not detect all types of genomic variants. In rare cases, false-negative or false-positive results may occur. The depth of coverage may be variable for some target regions; assay performance below the minimum acceptable criteria or for failed regions will be noted. Given these limitations, negative results do not rule out the diagnosis of a genetic disorder. If a specific clinical disorder is suspected, evaluation by alternative methods can be considered.

 

There may be regions of genes that cannot be effectively evaluated by sequencing or deletion and duplication analysis as a result of technical limitations of the assay, including regions of homology, high guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and repetitive sequences. Confirmation of select reportable variants will be performed by alternate methodologies based on internal laboratory criteria.

 

This test is validated to detect 95% of deletions up to 75 base pairs (bp) and insertions up to 47 bp. Insertions/deletions (indels) of 40 or more bp, including mobile element insertions, may be less reliably detected than smaller indels.

 

Deletion/Duplication Analysis:

This analysis targets single and multi-exon deletions/duplications; however, in some instances single exon resolution cannot be achieved due to isolated reduction in sequence coverage or inherent genomic complexity. Balanced structural rearrangements (such as translocations and inversions) may not be detected.

 

This test is not designed to detect low levels of mosaicism or to differentiate between somatic and germline variants. If there is a possibility that any detected variant is somatic, additional testing may be necessary to clarify the significance of results.

 

Genes may be added or removed based on updated clinical relevance. Refer to the Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel in Special Instructions for the most up to date list of genes included in this test. For detailed information regarding gene specific performance and technical limitations, see Method Description or contact a laboratory genetic counselor.

 

If the patient has had an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant or a recent heterologous blood transfusion, results may be inaccurate due to the presence of donor DNA. Call Mayo Clinic Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Reclassification of Variants:

At this time, it is not standard practice for the laboratory to systematically review previously classified variants on a regular basis. The laboratory encourages health care providers to contact the laboratory at any time to learn how the classification of a particular variant may have changed over time.

 

Variant Evaluation:

Evaluation and categorization of variants is performed using published American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology recommendations as a guideline. Other gene-specific guidelines may also be considered. Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance. Variants classified as benign or likely benign are not reported.

 

Multiple in silico evaluation tools may be used to assist in the interpretation of these results. The accuracy of predictions made by in silico evaluation tools is highly dependent upon the data available for a given gene, and periodic updates to these tools may cause predictions to change over time. Results from in silico evaluation tools should be interpreted with caution and professional clinical judgement.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Fenton WA, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS et al: Disorders of propionate and methylmalonate metabolism. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet A, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. Accessed January 07, 2020. Available at http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225086103

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and/or Sanger sequencing is performed to test for the presence of variants in coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the genes analyzed, as well as some other regions that have known pathogenic variants. The human genome reference GRCh37/hg19 build was used for sequence read alignment. At least 99% of the bases are covered at a read depth over 30X. Sensitivity is estimated at above 99% for single nucleotide variants, above 94% for insertions/deletions (indels) less than 40 base pairs (bp), above 95% for deletions up to 75 bp and insertions up to 47 bp. NGS and/or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative method is performed to test for the presence of deletions and duplications in the genes analyzed. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel for details regarding the targeted genes analyzed.

 

There may be regions of genes that cannot be effectively evaluated by sequencing or deletion and duplication analysis as a result of technical limitations of the assay, including regions of homology, high guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and repetitive sequences. See Targeted Genes and Methodology Details for Methylmalonic Aciduria-Propionic Aciduria Combined Gene Panel for details regarding the specific gene regions not routinely covered.(Unpublished Mayo method)

 

Genes analyzed: ABCD4, ACSF3, ALDH6A1, AMN, CD320, CUBN, DMGDH, CBLIF, HCFC1, LMBRD1, MCEE, MMAA, MMAB, MMACHC, MMADHC, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MMUT, PCCA, PCCB, PRDX1, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, TCN1, TCN2, THAP11, ZNF143

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

Supplemental

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

4 to 6 weeks

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available); Extracted DNA: 3 months; Blood spots/Saliva:1 month

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81443

88233-Tissue culture, skin, solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MPAGP MMA PA Combined Gene Panel In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
608668 Test Description 62364-5
608669 Specimen 31208-2
608670 Source 31208-2
608671 Result Summary 50397-9
608672 Result 82939-0
608673 Interpretation 69047-9
608674 Resources 99622-3
608675 Additional Information 48767-8
608676 Method 85069-3
608677 Genes Analyzed 48018-6
608678 Disclaimer 62364-5
608679 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports