Test Catalog

Test Id : YMCRO

Y Chromosome Microdeletions, Molecular Detection, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating men with azoospermia, severe oligozoospermia, or otherwise unexplained male factor infertility

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Tests for the presence of microdeletions in the AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc regions of the Y chromosome.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Y Microdeletion

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

YMICR

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Ambient (preferred)
Frozen
Refrigerated

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating men with azoospermia, severe oligozoospermia, or otherwise unexplained male factor infertility

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Tests for the presence of microdeletions in the AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc regions of the Y chromosome.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Yq microdeletions involving some or all of the azoospermic factor (AZF) region are the most frequently identified cause of spermatogenic failure in chromosomally normal men with nonobstructive azoospermia (3%-15%) or severe oligospermia (6%-10%). Among unselected infertile men, the overall frequency of Yq microdeletions is approximately 3%. The relative frequency of Yq microdeletions makes the evaluation for them an important aspect of the diagnostic work up in infertile men, especially those with azoospermia or severe oligospermia.

 

Most cases of Yq microdeletions occur de novo, and due to the consequential infertile phenotype, they are typically not transmitted. However, in cases where assisted reproductive technology (example: testicular sperm extraction followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is used to achieve viable pregnancy, all male offspring born to a microdeletion carrier will carry the deletion and may be infertile.

 

Men testing positive for 1 or more microdeletions who are enrolled in an in vitro fertilization treatment program may wish to consider alternative options to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (eg, donor sperm) and consultation with an experienced reproductive endocrinologist and medical geneticist is recommended.

 

Most Y microdeletions are the result of homologous recombination between repeated sequence blocks. Testing for deletions involves investigating for the presence or absence of markers located within nonpolymorphic regions of the AZF region.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be provided.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

This assay will not detect all of the causes of infertility or azoospermia. Therefore, the absence of a detectable microdeletion does not rule out the presence of other genetic or nongenetic factors that may be the cause of clinical findings.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in the interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Rare variants (ie, polymorphisms) exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

In rare cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

A genetic consultation is recommended for all patients undergoing this testing. Additional consultation with a reproductive endocrinologist/urologist to discuss reproductive options is recommended when a deletion is detected.

Supportive Data

Validation studies done at Mayo Clinic on a series of known fertile and infertile specimens provided the following results. Of 111 DNA specimens from known fertile men, 110 gave unequivocal negative results demonstrating clinical specificity of 99%. A series of 19 specimens from females (negative controls) were all negative, as expected. In a small series of specimens from 4 men being treated for male factor infertility, no deletions were found (which may be expected given a reported prevalence of 7% for microdeletions in unselected male infertility patients). Seven specimens were mailed in from outside laboratories (3 of which were sent as part of an external quality assessment scheme organized by the European Academy of Andrology) with known deletions in either AZFa, AZFb, or AZFc. Using this assay, all were diagnosed correctly to give an analytical sensitivity of 100%.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Stahl PJ, Masson P, Mielnik A, et al: A decade of experience emphasizes that testing for Y microdeletions is essential in American men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2010 Oct;94(5):1753-1756

2. Shalender Bhasin: Approach to the infertile man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007Jun; 92(6):1995-2004

3. Ferlin A, Arredi B, Speltra E, et al: Molecular and clinical characterization of Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men: A 10-year experience in Italy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):762-770

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis are used to test DNA for the presence of microdeletions in the AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc regions of the Y chromosome.(Simoni M, Bakker E, Krausz C: EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of y-chromosomal microdeletions. State of the art 2004 Int J Androl 2004;Aug 27[4]:240-249)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

7 to 10 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81403-DAZ/SRY (deleted in azoospermia and sex determining region Y) (eg, male infertility), common deletions (eg, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc, AZFd)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
YMCRO Y Microdeletion 35456-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
53364 Result Summary 50397-9
53365 Result 82939-0
53366 Interpretation 69047-9
53367 Specimen 31208-2
53368 Source 31208-2
53369 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports