TEST CATALOG ORDERING & RESULTS SPECIMEN HANDLING CUSTOMER SERVICE EDUCATION & INSIGHTS
Test Catalog

Test ID: APIVC    
Aldosterone, Inferior Vena Cava, Plasma

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation using inferior vena cava specimen for:

-Primary aldosteronism (eg, adrenal adenoma/carcinoma and adrenal cortical hyperplasia)

-Secondary aldosteronism (renovascular disease, salt depletion, potassium loading, cardiac failure with ascites, pregnancy, Bartter syndrome)

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Aldosterone stimulates sodium transport across cell membranes, particularly in the distal renal tubule where sodium is exchanged for hydrogen and potassium. Secondarily, aldosterone is important in the maintenance of blood pressure and blood volume.

 

Aldosterone is the major mineralocorticoid and is produced by the adrenal cortex.

 

The renin-angiotensin system is the primary regulator of the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone. Likewise, increased concentrations of potassium in the plasma may directly stimulate adrenal production of the hormone. Under physiologic conditions, pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a major factor in regulating aldosterone secretion.

 

See Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

No established reference values.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A high ratio of plasma aldosterone (PA) in ng/dL to plasma renin activity (PRA) in ng/mL per hour is a positive screening test result, a finding that warrants further testing. A PA:PRA ratio of20 or greater is only interpretable with a PA of 15 ng/dL or greater and indicates probable primary aldosteronism.

 

Renal disease, such as unilateral renal artery stenosis, results in elevated renin and aldosterone levels. Renal venous catheterization may be helpful. A positive test is a renal venous renin ratio (affected/normal) above1.5.

 

The following are available in Special Instructions:

-Renin-Aldosterone Studies

-Steroid Pathways

 

Note: Advice on stimulation or suppression tests is available from Mayo Clinic's Division of Endocrinology and may be obtained by calling 800-533-1710.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Late p.m. levels can be up to 30% lower than early a.m. levels. Supine values are on average 50% lower than upright collections. Sodium-depleted subjects have significantly elevated plasma aldosterone (PA) levels, potentially exceeding the upper limit of the salt replete upright reference range by several fold. To account for these variables, at least in part, it is recommended that plasma renin activity (PRA) is measured concomitantly. In situations of physiological variability, PRA should be altered in the same direction as aldosterone. See Renin-Aldosterone Studies in Special Instructions.

 

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have the potential to falsely elevate PRA. Therefore, in a patient treated with an ACE inhibitor, the finding of a detectable PRA level or a low PA:PRA ratio does not exclude the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. In addition, in a patient taking an ACE inhibitor, an undetectably low PRA level is a strong predictor for primary aldosteronism.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Young WF Jr: Primary aldosteronism: A common and curable form of hypertension. Cardiol Rev 1999;7:207-214

2. Young WF Jr: Pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism: diagnostic approaches. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1997;26:801-827

3. Hurwitz S, Cohen RJ, Williams GH: Diurnal variation of aldosterone and plasma renin activity: timing relation to melatonin and cortisol and consistency after prolonged bed rest. J Appl Physiol 2004;96:1406-1414

Special Instructions Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test