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Test Catalog

Test ID: MHPRP    
Mycoplasma hominis, Molecular Detection, PCR, Plasma

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of Mycoplasma hominis from plasma

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Mycoplasma hominis has been associated with a number of clinically significant infections, although it is also part of the normal genital flora.

 

M hominis may be found in the respiratory specimens and spinal fluid of neonates. Although the clinical significance of such findings is often unclear, as spontaneous clinical recovery may occur without specific treatment, in premature infants, clinical manifestations of meningoencephalitis have been reported.

 

M hominis may play a role in some cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, usually in combination with other organisms. M hominis may be isolated from amniotic fluid of women with preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous term labor, or chorioamnionitis; there is evidence that it may be involved in postpartum fever or fever following abortion, usually as a complication of endometritis.

 

M hominis has rarely been associated with septic arthritis (including prosthetic joint infection), pyelonephritis, intraabdominal infection, wound infection, endocarditis, central nervous system infection (including meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, central nervous system shunt infection and subdural empyema), pneumonia, and infected pleural and pericardial effusions. Extragenital infection typically occurs in those with hypogammaglobulinemia or depressed cell-mediated immunity. In lung transplant recipients in particular, M hominis has been associated with pleuritis and mediastinitis. Recent evidence implicates donor transmission in some cases of M hominis infection in lung transplant recipients.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Not applicable

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A positive PCR result for the presence of a specific sequence found within the Mycoplasma hominis tuf gene indicates the presence of M hominis DNA in the specimen.

 

A negative PCR result indicates the absence of detectable M hominis DNA in the specimen, but does not rule-out infection as false-negative results may occur due to inhibition of PCR, sequence variability underlying the primers and probes, or the presence of M hominis in quantities less than the limit of detection of the assay.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Interfering substances may affect the accuracy of this assay; results should always be interpreted in conjunction with clinical and epidemiological findings

 

Since Mycoplasma hominis may be part of the normal flora, results should be interpreted accordingly.

 

This test does not detect other mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas (including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of community acquired pneumonia)

 

This test is not intended for medicolegal use.

Supportive Data

Validation included spiking studies for Mycoplasma hominis. Spiking studies were carried out using 30 EDTA whole blood and plasma samples spiked with genomic DNA for M hominis (as well as 10 unspiked specimens). Sensitivity and specificity was 100%.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Cunningham SA, Mandrekar JN, Rosenblatt JE, Patel R: Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. Int J Bacteriol. Vol 2013, Article ID 168742. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/168742

2. Sampath R, Patel R, Cunningham SA, et al: Cardiothoracic Transplant Recipient Mycoplasma hominis: An Uncommon Infection with Probable Donor Transmission, EBioMedicine 2017 May;19:84-90

3. Waites KB, Taylor-Robinson D: Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 11th edition. Edited by JH Jorgensen. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2015, pp 1088-1105