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Test Catalog

Test ID: PARVN    
Parvovirus B19 Antibody, Technical Interpretation

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Interpretation of serologic testing for recent or past parvovirus B19 infection

 

This test is not useful as a screening procedure for the general population

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease (ie, erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek syndrome), which usually produces a mild illness characterized by an intensive erythematous maculopapular facial rash. Most outbreaks of parvovirus infection are acquired by direct contact with respiratory secretions and primarily occur in the spring. Close contact between individuals is responsible for infection in schools, day care centers, and hospitals. The virus has also been associated with fetal damage (hydrops fetalis), aplastic crisis, and arthralgia. Infection during pregnancy presents the risk of transmission to the fetus that may cause intrauterine death. The rate of fetal death following maternal infection ranges between 1% and 9%.

 

Parvovirus B19 preferentially replicates in erythroid progenitor cells.(1) Infection with parvovirus B19 occurs early in life and the virus is transmitted by respiratory secretion and occasionally by blood products. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies increases with age. The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to parvovirus is 2% to 9% of children under 5 years, 15% to 35% in children 5 to 18 years of age, and 30% to 60% in adults (19 years or older).

 

Most acute infections with parvovirus B19 are diagnosed in the laboratory by serologically detecting IgG and IgM class antibodies to the virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Only orderable as part of a profile. For further more information see PARVS / Parvovirus B19 Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum.

 

IgG: Negative

IgM: Negative

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Parvovirus B19 IgM

Parvovirus B19 IgG

Interpretation

Negative

Negative

No antibody to parvovirus B19 detected. Acute infection cannot be ruled out as antibody levels may be below the limit of detection. If clinically indicated, a second serum should be submitted in 14 to 21 days.

Negative

Positive

Results suggest past infection.

Equivocal

Positive or negative

Recommend follow-up testing in 10 to 14 days if clinically indicated.

Positive

Positive, negative or equivocal

Results suggest recent infection and should be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation.

 

The presence of IgM class antibodies suggests recent infection. The presence of IgG antibodies only is indicative of past exposure.

 

Both IgG and IgM may be present at or soon after onset of illness and reach peak titers within 30 days. Because IgG antibody may persist for years, diagnosis of acute infection is made by the detection of IgM antibodies.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Specimens drawn prior to seroconversion may yield negative IgM or IgG antibody results, while specimens drawn after IgM antibody levels have begun to decline may yield negative IgM antibody results. Follow-up testing of convalescent samples may be beneficial to establish infection status.

 

The continued presence or absence of antibodies cannot be used to determine the success or failure of therapy.

 

Test results of specimens from immunocompromised patients may be difficult to interpret.

 

Testing should not be performed as a screening procedure for the general population. Testing should only be done when clinical evidence suggests the diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated disease.

 

The performance of this test has not been established on neonates and immunocompromised patients.

 

Specimens containing antinuclear antibodies may produce equivocal or positive test results in the IgM assay.

 

Epstein-Barr virus-positive specimens may produce positive or equivocal test results in the IgM assay.

 

Assay performance characteristics have not been established for matrices other than serum.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Brown KE, Young NS: Parvovirus B19 in human disease. Ann Rev Med 1997;48:59-67

2. Markenson GR, Yancey MK: Parvovirus B19 infections in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1998;22(4):309-317

3. Summers J, Jones SE, Anderson MJ: Characterization of the genome of the agent of erythrocyte aplasia permits its classification as a human parvovirus. J Gen Virol 1983;64;(Pt 11):2527-2532

4. Qui J, Soderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human Paravoviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jan;30(1):43-113. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00040-16