Test Catalog

Test Id : CFX

Protein C Activity, Plasma

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

As an initial test for evaluating patients suspected of having congenital protein C deficiency, including those with personal or family histories of thrombotic events

 

Detecting and confirming congenital type I and type II protein C deficiencies

 

Detecting and confirming congenital homozygous protein C deficiency

 

Identifying decreased functional protein C of acquired origin (eg, due to oral anticoagulant effect, vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis/disseminated intravascular coagulation)

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Chromogenic

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Protein C Activity, P

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Functional Protein C

Protein C, Functional, Plasma

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Plasma Na Cit

Ordering Guidance

Coagulation testing is highly complex, often requiring the performance of multiple assays and correlation with clinical information. For that reason, consider ordering AATHR / Thrombophilia Profile, Plasma and Whole Blood.

Necessary Information

1. If the patient is being treated with Coumadin, this should be noted. Coumadin will lower protein C.

2. Heparin (unfractionated or low molecular weight) 2 U/mL or more may interfere with this assay.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: Fasting

Specimen Type: Platelet-poor plasma

Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (3.2% sodium citrate)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. For complete instructions, see Coagulation Guidelines for Specimen Handling and Processing.

2. Centrifuge, transfer all plasma into a plastic vial, and centrifuge plasma again.

3. Aliquot plasma into a plastic vial leaving 0.25 mL in the bottom of centrifuged vial.

4. Freeze plasma immediately (no longer than 4 hours after collection) at -20 degrees C or, ideally, at < or =-40 degrees C.

Additional Information:

1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.

2. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Na Cit Frozen (preferred) 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

As an initial test for evaluating patients suspected of having congenital protein C deficiency, including those with personal or family histories of thrombotic events

 

Detecting and confirming congenital type I and type II protein C deficiencies

 

Detecting and confirming congenital homozygous protein C deficiency

 

Identifying decreased functional protein C of acquired origin (eg, due to oral anticoagulant effect, vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis/disseminated intravascular coagulation)

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Physiology:

Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant proenzyme. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the plasma. The biological half-life of plasma protein C is approximately 6 to 10 hours, similar to the relatively short half-life of coagulation factor VII.

 

Protein C is activated by thrombin, in the presence of an endothelial cell cofactor (thrombomodulin), to form the active enzyme activated protein C (APC). APC functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytically inactivating the activated forms of coagulation factors V and VIII (factors Va and VIIIa). APC also enhances fibrinolysis by inactivating plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1).

 

Expression of the anticoagulant activity of APC is enhanced by a cofactor, protein S, another vitamin K-dependent plasma protein.

 

Pathophysiology:

Congenital homozygous protein C deficiency results in a severe thrombotic diathesis, evident in the neonatal period and resembling purpura fulminans.

 

Congenital heterozygous protein C deficiency may predispose to thrombotic events, primarily venous thromboembolism; arterial thrombosis (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) may occur. Some individuals with hereditary heterozygous protein C deficiency may have no personal or family history of thrombosis and may or may not be at increased risk. Congenital heterozygous protein C may predispose to development of coumarin-associated skin necrosis. Skin necrosis has occurred during the initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy.

 

Two types of hereditary heterozygous protein C deficiency are recognized:

-Type I (concordantly decreased protein C function and antigen)

-Type II (decreased protein C function with normal antigen level)

 

Acquired deficiencies of protein C may occur in association with:

-Vitamin K deficiency

-Oral anticoagulation with coumarin compounds

-Liver disease

-Intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis/disseminated intravascular coagulation (ICF/DIC)

 

The clinical hemostatic significance of acquired protein C deficiency is uncertain.

 

Assay of protein C functional activity is recommended for the initial laboratory evaluation of patients suspected of having congenital protein C deficiency (personal or family history of thrombotic diathesis), rather than assay of protein C antigen.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

70-150%

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Values below 60% to 70% may represent a congenital deficiency state, if acquired deficiencies can be excluded.

 

Protein C activity (and antigen) is generally undetectable in individuals with severe, homozygous protein C deficiency.

 

Oral anticoagulant therapy (warfarin, Coumadin) decreases protein C activity, compromising the ability to distinguish between congenital and acquired protein C deficiency. Concomitant measurement of the activity of coagulation factor VII (or factor X) may aid in differentiating congenital deficiency state from acquired protein C deficiency due to oral anticoagulant effect, but the ratio of the activities of protein C:factor VII (or factor X) has not been demonstrated to provide certainty about  this distinction.

 

The clinical significance of acquired protein C deficiency and of increased protein C is unknown.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Protein C activity result may be affected by:

-Heparin (unfractionated) > or =2 U/mL

-Heparin (low molecular weight) >2 U/mL

-Hemoglobin >500 mg/dL

-Bilirubin >21 mg/dL

-Triglycerides >890 mg/dL

 

Lipemia may interfere with functional protein C assay. Blood specimens for protein C functional assay should be drawn in the fasting state, if possible.

 

Protein C functional assay using a venom activator and a chromogenic peptide substrate has the potential of not detecting certain congenital protein C variants that might be detectable using clot-based assay of protein C function.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Mannucci PM, Owen WG: Basic and clinical aspects of proteins C and S. In: Bloom AL, Thomas DP, eds. Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone; 1987:452-464

2. Marlar RA, Mastovich S: Hereditary protein C deficiency: a review of the genetics, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1990;1:319-330

3. Marlar RA, Montgomery RR, Broekmans AW: Diagnosis and treatment of homozygous protein C deficiency. Report of the Working Party on Homozygous Protein C Deficiency of the Subcommittee on Protein C and Protein S, International Committee on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. J Pediatr. 1989;114:528-534

4. Miletich J, Sherman L, Broze G Jr: Absence of thrombosis in subjects with heterozygous protein C deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:991-996

5. Pabinger I, Allaart CF, Hermans J, Briet E, Bertina RM: Hereditary protein C-deficiency: laboratory values in transmitters and guidelines for the diagnostic procedure. Report on a study of the SSC Subcommittee on Protein C and Protein S. Protein C Transmitter Study Group. Thromb Haemost. 1992 Oct 5;68(4):470-474

6. Cooper PC, Pavlova A, Moore GA, Hickey KP, Arlar RA: Recommendations for clinical laboratory testing for protein C deficiency, for the subcommittee on plasma coagulation inhibitors of the ISTH. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18:271-277

7. Baron JM, Johnson SM, Ledford-Kraemer MR, Hayward CP, Meijer P, Van Cott EM: Protein C assay performance: an analysis of North American specialized coagulation laboratory association proficiency testing results. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012 Jun;137(6):909-15. doi: 10.1309/AJCP8MWU4QSTCLPU

8. Roshan TM, Stein N, Jiang XY: Comparison of clot-based and chromogenic assay for the determination of protein c activity. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2019 Jun;30(4):156-160. doi: 10.1097/MBC.0000000000000806

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This Protein C activity assay is performed using the HemosIL Protein C kit on the Instrumentation Laboratory ACL TOP. Protein C in plasma is activated by a specific enzyme (protein C activator) from copperhead snake venom (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix). The amount of activated protein C is determined by the rate of hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate, S-2366 (pyroGlu Pro-Arg-pNA-HCL). The pNA release is measured kinetically at 405 nm and is directly proportional to the protein C level in the plasma.(Package insert: HemosIL Protein C. Instrumentation Laboratory; 03/2016)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

85303

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CFX Protein C Activity, P 27818-4
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
CFX Protein C Activity, P 27818-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports