Test Catalog

Test Id : TIS

Titanium, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Triple-Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Titanium, S

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Titanium (Ti)

(Ti) Titanium

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metal tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for at least 96 hours.

Supplies: Metal Free Specimen Vial (T173)

Collection Container/Tube: Plain, royal blue-top Vacutainer plastic trace element blood collection tube

Submission Container/Tube: 7-mL Metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial

Specimen Volume: 1.2 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Allow specimen to clot for 30 minutes; then centrifuge the specimen to separate serum from the cellular fraction.

2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into a metal-free, polypropylene vial, avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport for complete instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days METAL FREE
Frozen 28 days METAL FREE
Ambient 7 days METAL FREE

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust. Multiple oxidation states between 2+ and 4+ allow formation of a variety of compounds. There is no evidence that titanium is an essential element. Due in part to titanium's oxide formation propensity, the element is considered to be nontoxic. Soils, drinking water, and air all contain trace amounts of titanium. The food processing industry uses large quantities of titanium as a food additive; processed foods contain higher levels than are found in most produce and organic food-stuffs. The average daily oral intake through food consumption is 0.1 to 1 mg/day, which accounts for more than 99% of exposure. Gastrointestinal absorption of titanium is low (approximately 3%), and the majority of ingested titanium is rapidly excreted in the urine and stool. The total body burden of titanium is usually in the range of 9 to 15 mg, a significant portion of which is contained in the lung. Titanium dust entering the respiratory tract is nonirritating and is almost completely nonfibrogenic in humans.


Titanium-containing alloys are used in some artificial joints, prosthetic devices, and implants. Titanium dioxide allows osseointegration between an artificial medical implant and bone. Despite their wide use, exposure to these materials has not been linked to toxicity. In one study, patients monitored up to 36 months following joint replacement with titanium-containing joints showed a statistically significant increase in detectable serum titanium. While titanium concentrations are not a measure of toxicity, they are useful in determining whether implant breakdown is occurring. Serum titanium concentrations are likely to be increased above the reference range in patients with metallic joint prosthesis. Prosthetic devices produced by Zimmer Company and Johnson and Johnson typically are made of aluminum, vanadium, and titanium. This list of products is incomplete, and these products change occasionally; see prosthesis product information for each device for composition details.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<2 ng/mL

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Prosthesis wear is known to result in increased circulating concentration of metal ions. In the absence of an implant, circulating titanium is below 1 ng/mL. Modest increase (1.0-3.0 ng/mL) in serum titanium concentration is evident with a prosthetic device in good condition. Serum concentrations above 10 ng/mL in a patient with titanium-based implant suggest prosthesis wear. Increased serum titanium concentration in the absence of corroborating clinical information does not independently predict prosthesis wear or failure.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Titanium is a trace metal commonly used in alloys and readily present in the environment. Thus, contamination of the collection site and of the specimen must be avoided. Failure to use metal-free collection procedures and devices may cause falsely increased results. See Specimen Required for collection and processing information.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer, CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018

2. Chao EY, Frassica F, Prichard DJ, Moyer TP: Metal ion release in patients with porous coated megaprostheses. 41st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Orlando, Florida, 1995 Feb 13-16

3. Jacobs JJ, Skipor AK, Patterson LM, et al: Metal release in patients who have had a primary total hip arthroplasty. A prospective, controlled, longitudinal study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Oct;80(10):1447-1458

4. Liu TK, Liu SH, Chang CH, Yang RS: Concentration of metal elements in the blood and urine in the patients with cementless total knee arthroplasty. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1998;185:253-262

5. Krachler M, Domj W, Irgolic KJ: Concentrations of trace elements in osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;75:253-263

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The metal of interest is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.


Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
TIS Titanium, S 8244-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
89367 Titanium, S 8244-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports