Test Catalog

Test Id : GDU

Gadolinium, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessing chronic exposure and monitoring effectiveness of dialysis in a 24-hour urine collection

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Gadolinium, 24 Hr, U

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Necessary Information

24-Hour volume is required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metal tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport for complete instructions.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Renal Diagnostics Test Request (T830) with the specimen.

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

OK

Refrigerate

Preferred

Frozen

OK

50% Acetic Acid

No

Boric Acid

No

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

OK

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.3 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Ambient 28 days
Frozen 28 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessing chronic exposure and monitoring effectiveness of dialysis in a 24-hour urine collection

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Gadolinium is a member of the lanthanide series of the periodic table of elements and is considered a nonessential element. Due to its paramagnetic properties, chelated gadolinium is commonly employed as contrast media (gadolinium-based contrast agents: GBCA) for magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography scanning.

 

Gadolinium is primarily eliminated via the kidneys, so exposure can be prolonged in patients with kidney insufficiency. Patients with reduced kidney function and some patients with normal kidney function may exhibit a prolonged gadolinium elimination half-life.

 

To date the only known adverse health effect related to gadolinium retention is a rare condition called nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). NSF is a relatively uncommon condition in which fibrous plaques develop in the dermis and often in deeper connective tissues. Reported cases have occurred almost exclusively in patients with severe kidney disease, and almost all have been associated with prior use of GBCA. NSF is a painful skin disease characterized by thickening of the skin, which can involve the joints and cause significant limitation of motion within weeks to months. Over the past decade, changes in clinical practice guidelines have almost completely eliminated the incidence of NSF. However, the association of NSF and observed elevated gadolinium concentrations is still not fully understood.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

0-17 years: not established

> or =18 years: <1.1 mcg/24 hours

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Elevated urine gadolinium results from a specimen collected more than 96 hours after administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent confirms past exposure or continued exposure through anthropogenic sources and prolonged elimination of gadolinium. Gadolinium also has been shown to be present in some municipal water sources, which may contribute to the observation of low concentrations of gadolinium in patients who never have been exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents.

 

Elevated gadolinium in a specimen collected more than 96 hours after contrast media infusion does not indicate risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Urine gadolinium concentration will be elevated if the specimen is collected less than 96 hours after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. This elevation is due to the residual gadolinium present from contrast media infusion. An elevated gadolinium in a specimen collected more than 96 hours after contrast media infusion does not definitively indicate risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis or gadolinium toxicity. Ultimately, patients should consult with their healthcare providers to interpret any test results.

 

Gadolinium may also be present in the effluent of metropolitan sewage treatment plants and in the rivers near metropolitan areas. Sewage treatment does not remove gadolinium. Anthropogenic sources of gadolinium could contribute to low concentrations of gadolinium excreted in the urine.

Supportive Data

An evaluation of urine gadolinium concentration in healthy human subjects not exposed to gadolinium within 96 hours of specimen collection generated a reference range of less than 0.7 mcg/24 hour with no evidence of age or gender trend.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Othersen JB, Maize JC, Woolson RF, Budisavljevic MN: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis after exposure to gadolinium in patients with renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Nov;22:3179-3185

2. Christensen KN, Lee CU, Hanley MM, et al: Quantification of gadolinium in fresh skin and serum samples from patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Jan;64(1):91-96

3. Telgmann L, Sperling M, Karst U: Determination of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in biological and environmental samples: A review. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2013 Feb;764:1-16

4. Daftari Besheli L, Aran S, Shaqdan K, et al: Current status of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Clin Radiol. 2014 Jul;69(7):661-668

5. Aime S, Caravan P: Biodistribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents, including gadolinium deposition. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Dec;30(6):1259-1267

6. McDonald RJ, McDonald JS, Kallmes DF, et al: Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 2015;275:772-782

7. Attari H, Cao Y, Elmholdt TR, Zhao Y, Prince MR: A systematic review of 639 patients with biopsy-confirmed nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Radiology. 2019 Aug;292(2):376-386

8. Woolen SA, Shankar PR, Gagnier JJ, MacEachern MP, Singer L, Davenport MS: Risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease receiving a group II gadolinium-based contrast agent: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Feb 1;180(2):223-230

9. Bornhorst J, Wegwerth P, Day P, et al: Urinary reference intervals for gadolinium in individuals without recent exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020 Feb 25;58(3):e87-e90

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Gadolinium in serum and urine is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in standard mode using terbium  as an internal standard and a plasma matrix calibration.(Leung N, Pittelkow MR, Lee CU et al: Chelation of gadolinium with deferoxamine in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. NDT Plus. 2009;2[4]:309-311; Rifai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83018

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GDU Gadolinium, 24 Hr, U 8201-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
29252 Gadolinium, 24 Hr, U 8201-6
TM101 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL82 Urine Volume 3167-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports