Test Catalog

Test Id : CORTC

Corticosterone, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of suspected 11-hydroxylase deficiency, including the differential diagnosis of 11 beta-hydroxylase 1 (CYP11B1) versus 11 beta-hydroxylase 2 (CYP11B2) deficiency, and the diagnosis of glucocorticoid-responsive hyperaldosteronism

 

Evaluating congenital adrenal hyperplasia newborn screen-positive children, when elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone are only moderate, thereby suggesting possible 11-hydroxylase deficiency

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Corticosterone, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Substance H

17-deoxycortisol

11beta,21-dihydroxyprogesterone

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Red top

Acceptable: Serum gel

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions: Morning (8 a.m.) specimen is preferred.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Frozen 28 days
Ambient 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of suspected 11-hydroxylase deficiency, including the differential diagnosis of 11 beta-hydroxylase 1 (CYP11B1) versus 11 beta-hydroxylase 2 (CYP11B2) deficiency, and the diagnosis of glucocorticoid-responsive hyperaldosteronism

 

Evaluating congenital adrenal hyperplasia newborn screen-positive children, when elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone are only moderate, thereby suggesting possible 11-hydroxylase deficiency

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Corticosterone is a steroid hormone and a precursor molecule for aldosterone. It is produced from deoxycorticosterone, further converted to 18-hydroxy corticosterone and, finally, to aldosterone in the mineralocorticoid pathway.

 

The adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and placenta produce steroid hormones, which can be subdivided into 3 major groups: mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids. Synthesis proceeds from cholesterol along 3 parallel pathways, corresponding to these 3 major groups of steroids, through successive side-chain cleavage and hydroxylation reactions. At various levels of each pathway, intermediate products can move into the respective adjacent pathways via additional, enzymatically catalyzed reactions (see Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions).

 

Corticosterone is the first intermediate in the corticoid pathway with significant mineral corticoid activity. Its synthesis from 11-deoxycorticosterone is catalyzed by 11 beta-hydroxylase 2 (CYP11B2) or by 11 beta-hydroxylase 1 (CYP11B1). Corticosterone is in turn converted to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and finally to aldosterone, the most active mineral corticoid. Both of these reactions are catalyzed by CYP11B2, which, unlike its sister enzyme CYP11B1, also possesses 18-hydroxylase and 18-methyloxidase (also known as aldosterone synthase) activity.

 

The major diagnostic utility of measurements of steroid synthesis intermediates lies in the diagnosis of disorders of steroid synthesis, in particular congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). All types of CAH are associated with cortisol deficiency with the exception of CYP11B2 deficiency and isolated impairments of the 17-lyase activity of CYP17A1 (this enzyme also has 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity). In cases of severe illness or trauma, CAH predisposes patients to poor recovery or death. Patients with the most common form of CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, >90% of cases), with the third most common form of CAH (3-beta-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency, <3% of cases) and those with the extremely rare StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) or 20,22 desmolase deficiencies might also suffer mineral corticoid deficiency, as the enzyme blocks in these disorders are proximal to potent mineral corticoids. These patients might suffer salt-wasting crises in infancy. By contrast, patients with the second most common form of CAH, 11-hydroxylase deficiency (<5% of cases) are normotensive or hypertensive, as the block affects either CYP11B1 or CYP11B2, but rarely both, thus ensuring that at least corticosterone is still produced. In addition, patients with all forms of CAH might suffer the effects of substrate accumulation proximal to the enzyme block. In the 3 most common forms of CAH, the accumulating precursors spill over into the sex steroid pathway, resulting in virilization of females or, in milder cases, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian syndrome or infertility, as well as in possible premature adrenarche and pubarche in both genders.

 

Measurement of the various precursors of mature mineral corticoid and glucocorticoids, in concert with the determination of sex steroid concentrations, allows diagnosis of CAH and its precise type, and serves as an aid in monitoring steroid replacement therapy and other therapeutic interventions.

 

Measurement of corticosterone is used as an adjunct to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol (also known as compound S) measurement in the diagnosis of: 

-CYP11B1 deficiency (associated with cortisol deficiency)

-The less common CYP11B2 deficiency (no cortisol deficiency)

-The rare glucocorticoid responsive hyperaldosteronism (where expression of the gene CYP11B2 is driven by the CYP11B1 promoter, thus making it responsive to adrenocorticotrophic hormone: ACTH rather than renin)

-Isolated loss of function of the 18-hydroxylase or 18-methyloxidase activity of CYP11B2

 

For other forms of CAH, the following tests might be relevant:

 

-21-Hydroxylase deficiency:

 - OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum

 - ANST / Androstenedione, Serum

 - 21DOC / 21-Deoxycortisol, Serum

 

-3-Beta-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency:

 - 17PRN / Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone

 

-17-Hydroxylase deficiency or 17-lyase deficiency (CYP17A1 has both activities):

 - 17PRN / Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone

 - PGSN / Progesterone, Serum

 - OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum

 - DHEA_ / Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Serum

 - ANST / Androstenedione, Serum

 

Cortisol should be measured in all cases of suspected CAH.

 

When evaluating for suspected 11-hydroxylase deficiency, this test should be used in conjunction with measurements of 11-deoxycortisol, 11-corticosteone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, cortisol, renin, and aldosterone.

 

When evaluating congenital adrenal hyperplasia newborn screen-positive children, this test should be used in conjunction with 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosteorone measurements as an adjunct to 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone and cortisol measurements.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =18 years: 18-1,970 ng/dL

>18 years: 53-1,560 ng/dL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

In 11 beta-hydroxylase 1 (CYP11B1) deficiency, serum concentrations of cortisol will be low (usually <7 microgram/dL for a morning draw). 11-Deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone are elevated, usually to at least 2 to 3 times (more typically 20 to 300 times) the upper limit of the normal reference range on a morning blood draw. Elevations in 11-deoxycortisol are usually relatively greater than those of 11-deoxycorticosterone because of the presence of intact 11 beta-hydroxylase 2 (CYP11B2). For this reason, serum concentrations of all potent mineral corticoids (corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone) are typically increased above the normal reference range. Plasma renin activity is correspondingly low or completely suppressed. Caution needs to be exercised in interpreting the mineral corticoid results in infants younger than 7 days; mineral corticoid levels are often substantially elevated in healthy newborns in the first few hours of life and only decline to near-adult levels by week 1.

 

Mild cases of CYP11B1 deficiency might require adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)1-24 stimulation testing for definitive diagnosis. In affected individuals, the observed serum 11-deoxycortisol concentration 60 minutes after intravenous or intramuscular administration of 250 microgram of ACTH1-24 will usually exceed 20 ng/mL, or at least a 4-fold rise. Such increments are rarely, if ever, observed in unaffected individuals. The corresponding cortisol response will be blunted (<18 ng/mL peak).

 

In CYP11B2 deficiency, serum cortisol concentrations are usually normal, including a normal response to ACTH1-24. 11-Deoxycorticosterone will be elevated, often more profoundly than in CYP11B1 deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may or may not be significantly elevated. Serum corticosterone concentrations can be low, normal, or slightly elevated, while serum 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone concentrations will be low in the majority of cases. However, if the underlying genetic defect has selectively affected 18-hydroxylase activity, corticosterone concentrations will be substantially elevated. Conversely, if the deficit affects aldosterone synthase function primarily, 18-hydroxycorticosterone concentrations will be very high.

 

Expression of the CYP11B2 gene is normally regulated by renin and not ACTH. In glucocorticoid-responsive hyperaldosteronism, the ACTH-responsive promoter of CYP11B1 exerts aberrant control over CYP11B2 gene expression. Consequently, corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone are significantly elevated in these patients and their levels follow a diurnal pattern, governed by the rhythm of ACTH secretion. In addition, the high levels of CYP11B2 lead to 18-hydroxylation of 11-deoxycortisol (an event that is ordinarily rare, as CYP11B1, which has much greater activity in 11-deoxycortisol conversion than CYP11B2, lacks 18-hydroxylation activity). Consequently, significant levels of 18-hydroxycortisol, which normally is only present in trace amounts, might be detected in these patients. Ultimate diagnostic confirmation comes from showing directly responsiveness of mineral corticoid production to ACTH1-24 injection. Normally, this has little, if any, effect on corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone levels. This testing may then be further supplemented by showing that mineral corticoid levels fall after administration of dexamethasone.

 

Sex steroid levels are moderately to significantly elevated in CYP11B1 deficiency and much less, or minimally, pronounced, in CYP11B2 deficiency. Sex steroid levels in glucocorticoid-responsive hyperaldosteronism are usually normal.

 

Most untreated patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations well in excess of 1,000 ng/dL. For the few patients with levels in the range of greater than 630 ng/dL (upper limit of reference range for newborns) to 2,000 or 3,000 ng/dL, it might be prudent to consider 11-hydroxylase deficiency as an alternative diagnosis. This is particularly true if serum androstenedione concentrations are also only mildly to modestly elevated, and if the phenotype is not salt wasting but either simple virilizing (female) or normal (female or male). 11-Hydroxylase deficiency, in particular if it affects CYP11B1, can be associated with modest elevations in serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations. In these cases, testing for CYP11B1 deficiency and CYB11B2 deficiency should be considered and interpreted as described above. Alternatively, measurement of 21-deoxycortisol might be useful in these cases. This minor pathway metabolite accumulates in CYP21A2 deficiency, as it requires 21-hydroxylation to be converted to cortisol, but is usually not elevated in CYP11B1 deficiency, since its synthesis requires 11-hydroxylation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

At birth the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are activated and all adrenal steroids, including mineral corticoids and sex steroids and their precursors are high. In preterm infants, the elevations can be even more pronounced due to illness and stress. In doubtful cases, when the initial test was performed on a just-born baby, repeat testing a few days or weeks later is advised.

 

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)1-24 testing has a low, but definite risk of drug and allergic reactions and should, therefore, only be performed under the supervision of a physician in an environment that guarantees the patient’s safety, typically an endocrine, or other centralized, testing center.

 

Interpretation of ACTH1-24 testing in the context of diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) requires considerable experience, in particular for the less common variants of CAH, such as 11-hydroxylase deficiency, or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency, for which very few, if any, reliable normative data exist. For the even rarer enzyme defects, such as deficiencies of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), 20,22 desmolase, 17a-hydroxylase/17-lyase, and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), there are only case reports. Expert opinion from a pediatric endocrinologist with experience in CAH should, therefore, be sought.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Von Schnakenburg K, Bidlingmaier F, Knorr D: 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone in normal children and in prepubertal patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Eur J Pediatr 1980;133(3):259-267

2. Therrell BL: Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2001;30(1):15-30

3. Collett-Solberg PF: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: From genetics and biochemistry to clinical practice, part I. Clin Pediatr 2001;40:1-16

4. Forest MG: Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Hum Reprod Update 2004;10:469-485

5. Tonetto-Fernandes V, Lemos-Marini SH, Kuperman H, et al: Serum 21-deoxycortisol,17-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical and hormonal correlations and identification of patients with 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency among a large group with alleged 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2179-2184

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The specimen and an internal standard are assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte is detected by multiple-reaction monitoring.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 9 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
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Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82528

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CORTC Corticosterone, S 2139-4
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
88221 Corticosterone, S 2139-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
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Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
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Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
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SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports