Test Catalog

Test Id : CPR

C-Peptide, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnostic workup of hypoglycemia:

-Diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia due to surreptitious administration of insulin

-Evaluation of possible insulinoma

-Surrogate measure for the absence or presence of physiological suppressibility of endogenous insulin secretion during diagnostic insulin-induced hypoglycemia (C-peptide suppression test)

 

Assessing insulin secretory reserve in selected diabetic patients (as listed below) who either have insulin autoantibodies or who are receiving insulin therapy:

-Assessing residual endogenous insulin secretory reserve

-Monitoring pancreatic and islet cell transplant function

-Monitoring immunomodulatory therapy aimed at slowing progression of preclinical, or very early stage type 1 diabetes mellitus

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

C-Peptide, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

C Peptide Connecting Peptide of Insulin

C Peptide

Connecting Peptide of Insulin

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation:

1. Patient should fast for 8 hours.

2. For 12 hours before specimen collection do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.

Supplies: Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T465)

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot serum into plastic vial within 2 hours of collection

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a General Request (T239) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.75 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Autopsy specimen Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Frozen (preferred) 30 days
Refrigerated 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnostic workup of hypoglycemia:

-Diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia due to surreptitious administration of insulin

-Evaluation of possible insulinoma

-Surrogate measure for the absence or presence of physiological suppressibility of endogenous insulin secretion during diagnostic insulin-induced hypoglycemia (C-peptide suppression test)

 

Assessing insulin secretory reserve in selected diabetic patients (as listed below) who either have insulin autoantibodies or who are receiving insulin therapy:

-Assessing residual endogenous insulin secretory reserve

-Monitoring pancreatic and islet cell transplant function

-Monitoring immunomodulatory therapy aimed at slowing progression of preclinical, or very early stage type 1 diabetes mellitus

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

C-peptide (connecting peptide), a 31-amino-acid polypeptide, represents the midportion of the proinsulin molecule. Proinsulin resembles a hairpin structure, with an N-terminal and C-terminal, which correspond to the A and B chains of the mature insulin molecule, oriented parallel to each other and linked by disulfide bonds. The looped portion of the hairpin between the A and B chains is called C-peptide. During insulin secretion, C-peptide is enzymatically cleaved off and cosecreted in equimolar proportion with mature insulin molecules.

 

Following secretion, insulin and C-peptide enter the portal circulation and are routed through the liver where at least 50% of the insulin binds to receptors, initiates specific hepatic actions (stimulation of hepatic glucose uptake and suppression of glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis), and is subsequently degraded. Most of the insulin molecules that pass through the liver into the main circulation bind to peripheral insulin receptors, promoting glucose uptake, while the remaining molecules undergo renal elimination. Unlike insulin, C-peptide is subject to neither hepatic nor significant peripheral degradation but is mainly removed by the kidneys. As a result, C-peptide has a longer half-life than insulin (30-35 minutes versus 5-10 minutes), and the molar ratio of circulating insulin to circulating C-peptide is generally below 1, despite equimolar secretion. Until recently, C-peptide was thought to have no physiological function, but it now appears that there may be specific C-peptide cell-surface receptors (most likely belonging to the super-family of G-protein coupled receptors), which influence endothelial responsiveness and skeletal and renal blood flow.

 

In most disease conditions associated with abnormal serum insulin levels, the changes in serum C-peptide levels parallel insulin-related alterations (insulin to C-peptide molar ratio < or =1). Both serum C-peptide and serum insulin levels are elevated in renal failure and in disease states that lead to augmented primary endogenous insulin secretion (eg, insulinoma, sulfonylurea intoxication). Both also may be raised in any disease states that cause secondary increases in endogenous insulin secretion mediated through insulin resistance, primarily obesity, glucose intolerance, and early type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), as well as endocrine disorders associated with hypersecretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones (eg, Cushing syndrome, acromegaly). Failing insulin secretion in type 1 DM and longstanding type 2 DM is associated with corresponding reductions in serum C-peptide levels.

 

Discordant serum insulin and serum C-peptide abnormalities are mainly observed in 2 situations: exogenous insulin administration and the presence of anti-insulin autoantibodies. Factitious hypoglycemia due to surreptitious insulin administration results in appropriate suppression of endogenous insulin and C-peptide secretion. At the same time, the peripherally administered insulin bypasses the hepatic first-pass metabolism. In these situations, insulin levels are elevated and C-peptide levels are decreased. In patients with insulin antibodies, insulin levels are increased because of the prolonged half-life of autoantibody-bound insulin. Some patients with anti-idiotypic anti-insulin autoantibodies experience episodic hypoglycemia caused by displacement of autoantibody-bound insulin.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

1.1-4.4 ng/mL

Reference intervals have not been formally verified in-house for pediatric patients. The published literature indicates that reference intervals for adult and pediatric patients are comparable.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

To compare insulin and C-peptide concentrations (ie, insulin to C-peptide ratio):

-Convert insulin to pmol/L: insulin concentration in mcIU/mL x 6.945 = insulin concentration in pmol/L

-Convert C-peptide to pmol/L: C-peptide concentration in ng/mL x 331 = C-peptide concentration in pmol/L

 

Factitious hypoglycemia due to surreptitious insulin administration results in elevated serum insulin levels and low or undetectable C-peptide levels, with a clear reversal of the physiological molar insulin to C-peptide ratio (< or =1) to an insulin to C-peptide ratio of greater than 1. By contrast, insulin and C-peptide levels are both elevated in insulinoma and the insulin to C-peptide molar ratio is 1 or less. Sulfonylurea ingestion also is associated with preservation of the insulin to C-peptide molar ratio of 1 or less.

 

In patients with insulin autoantibodies, the insulin to C-peptide ratio may be reversed to greater than 1, because of the prolonged half-life of autoantibody-bound insulin.

 

Dynamic testing may be necessary in the workup of hypoglycemia; the C-peptide suppression test is most commonly employed. C-peptide levels are measured following induction of hypoglycemia through exogenous insulin administration. The test relies on the demonstration of the lack of suppression of serum C-peptide levels within 2 hours following insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with insulinoma.

 

Reference intervals have not been formally verified in-house for pediatric patients. The published literature indicates that reference intervals for adult and pediatric patients are comparable.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Significant hemolysis will result in artifactually lower C-peptide levels and such specimens are usually rejected. However, even mild hemolysis can lead to modest decrements in C-peptide values.

 

There is significant (>20%) cross-reactivity between C-peptide and proinsulin. There is no significant cross-reactivity with other pancreatic islet cell peptides or neuroendocrine peptides.

 

Very high C-peptide levels (>180 ng/mL) may result in artifactually low measurements (hook effect). Such levels are very unlikely to occur in patients, but if individuals are suspected of having serum levels above 180 ng/mL, the laboratory should be alerted in order to allow dilution of the specimen prior to testing.

 

This assay uses 2 mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies and may, therefore, be prone to interference by heterophile antimouse antibodies (HAMA). The lab should be alerted to suspected or known HAMA-positive specimens in order to allow the use of heterophile antibody blocking tubes for such specimens.

 

In the assessment of hypoglycemia, neither C-peptide nor insulin measurements are useful, or indicated, if serum blood glucose levels exceed 60 mg/dL.

 

In the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus, measurement of serum insulin levels usually provides superior information to that of serum C-peptide.

 

Patients with a body mass index (BMI) above 25 may have elevated fasting C-peptide levels.

 

In rare cases, interference due to extremely high titers of antibodies to ruthenium or streptavidin can occur.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Service FJ, O'Brien PC, Kao PC, Young WF Jr: C-peptide suppression test: effects of gender, age, and body mass index; implications for the diagnosis of insulinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;74:204-210

2. Lebowitz MR, Blumenthal SA: The molar ratio of insulin to C-peptide. An aid to the diagnosis of hypoglycemia due to surreptitious (or inadvertent) insulin administration. Arch Int Med. 1993 Mar 8;153(5):650-655

3. Leighton E, Sainsbury CA, Jones GC: A practical review of C-peptide testing in diabetes. Diabetes Ther. 2017 Jun;8(3):475-487

4. Jones AG, Hattersley AT: The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. Diabet.Med. 2013 Jul;30(7):803-817. doi: 10.1111/dme.12159

5. Ahn CH, Kim LK, Lee JE, et al: Clinical implications of various criteria for the biochemical diagnosis of insulinoma. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2014 Dec 29;29(4):498-504. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2014.29.4.498

6. Young DS, Huth EJ: SI Units for Clinical Measurement. American College of Physicians; 1998

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The Roche Elecsys C-peptide assay is a 2-site immunometric (sandwich) assay using electrochemiluminescence detection. Patient specimen, biotinylated monoclonal C-peptide specific antibody, and monoclonal C-peptide-specific antibody labeled with a ruthenium react to form a complex. Streptavidin-coated microparticles act as the solid phase to which the complex becomes bound. Voltage is applied to the electrode inducing a chemiluminescent emission from the ruthenium, which is then measured against a calibration curve to determine the amount of C-peptide in the patient specimen.(Package insert: Roche Elecsys C-peptide. Roche Diagnostics; V 1.0 English. 01/2020)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Saturday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84681

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CPR C-Peptide, S 13037-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Result LOINC Value Tooltip
CRPN C-Peptide, S 1986-9

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports