Test Catalog

Test Id : TGAB

Thyroglobulin Antibody, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

As an adjunct in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases: Hashimoto disease, postpartum thyroiditis, neonatal hypothyroidism, and Graves disease

Highlights

In conjunction with antithyroperoxidase autoantibodies, this test aids in the evaluation of autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease).

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunoenzymatic Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Thyroglobulin Antibody, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody

TG (Thyroglobulin) Antibody

Thyroglobulin Antibody

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum Red

Ordering Guidance

For the follow-up of patients with differentiated follicular-cell derived thyroid carcinomas, consider ordering HTG2 / Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker, Serum or HTGR / Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker Reflex, Serum.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: For 12 hours before specimen collection, do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.

Container/Tube: Red top (gel tubes/SST are not acceptable)

Specimen Volume: 0.6 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot serum within 2 hours of collection.

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a General Request (T239) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Red Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 30 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

As an adjunct in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases: Hashimoto disease, postpartum thyroiditis, neonatal hypothyroidism, and Graves disease

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Thyroglobulin autoantibodies bind thyroglobulin (Tg), a major thyroid-specific protein. Tg plays a crucial role in thyroid hormone synthesis, storage, and release.

 

Tg is not secreted into the systemic circulation under normal circumstances. However, follicular destruction through inflammation (thyroiditis and autoimmune hypothyroidism), hemorrhage (nodular goiter), or rapid disordered growth of thyroid tissue, as may be observed in Graves disease or follicular cell-derived thyroid neoplasms, can result in leakage of Tg into the blood stream. This results in the formation of autoantibodies to Tg (anti-Tg) in some individuals. The same processes also may result in exposure of other "hidden" thyroid antigens to the immune system, resulting in the formation of autoantibodies to other thyroid antigens, in particular thyroid peroxidase (TPO) (anti-TPO). Since anti-Tg and anti-TPO autoantibodies are observed most frequently in autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease), they were originally considered to be of possible pathogenic significance in this disorder. However, the consensus opinion today is that they are merely disease markers. It is felt that the presence of competent immune cells at the site of thyroid tissue destruction in autoimmune thyroiditis simply predisposes the patient to form autoantibodies to hidden thyroid antigens.

 

In individuals with autoimmune hypothyroidism, 30% to 50% will have detectable anti-Tg autoantibodies, while 50% to 90% will have detectable anti-TPO autoantibodies. In Graves disease, both types of autoantibodies are observed at approximately half these rates.

 

The presence of anti-Tg, which occurs in 15% to 30% of thyroid cancer patients, could result in misleading Tg results. In immunometric assays, the presence of thyroid antibody can lead to false-low measurement; whereas it might lead to false-high results in competitive assays.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<4.0 IU/mL

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Diagnosis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease:

Measurements of antithyroperoxidase (TPO) have higher sensitivity and equal specificity to antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) measurements in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Anti-Tg levels should, therefore, only be measured if anti-TPO measurements are negative, but clinical suspicion of autoimmune thyroid disease is high. Detection of significant titers of anti-Tg or anti-TPO autoantibodies is supportive evidence for a diagnosis of Graves disease in patients with thyrotoxicosis. However, measurement of the pathogenic antithyrotropin (anti-thyroid stimulating hormone)) receptor antibodies by binding assay (THYRO / Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody, Serum) or bioassay (TSI / Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin, Serum) is the preferred method of confirming Graves disease in atypical cases and under special clinical circumstances.

 

Positive thyroid autoantibody levels in patients with high-normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin levels predict the future development of more profound hypothyroidism.

 

Patients with postpartum thyroiditis with persistently elevated thyroid autoantibody levels have an increased likelihood of permanent hypothyroidism. 

 

In cases of neonatal hypothyroidism, the detection of anti-TPO or anti-Tg in the infant suggests transplacental antibody transfer, particularly if the mother has a history of autoimmune thyroiditis or detectable thyroid autoantibodies. The neonatal hypothyroidism is likely to be transient in these cases.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) values determined by different methodologies might vary significantly and cannot be directly compared with one another. Some patients might show to be antibody-positive by some methods and antibody-negative by others. Comparing anti-Tg and anti-TPO values from different methods might lead to erroneous clinical interpretation.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1 Sapin P, d'Herbomez M, Gasser F, Meyer L, Schlienger JL: Increased sensitivity of a new assay for anti-thyroglobulin antibody detection in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Biochem. 2003 Nov;36(8):611-616. doi: 10.1016/s0009-9120(03)00114-0

2. Saravanan P, Dayan CM: Thyroid autoantibodies. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 June;30(2):315-337

3. Baloch Z, Carayon P, Conte-Devolx B, et al: Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease Thyroid 2003 Jan;13(1):45-67

4. Algeciras-Schimnich A: Thyroglobulin measurement in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2018 May;55(3):205-218. doi: 10.1080/10408363.2018.1450830

5. Frohlich E, Wahl R: Thyroid autoimmunity: Role of anti-thyroid antibodies in thyroid and extra-thyroidal diseases. Front Immunol. 2017 May 9;8:521. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00521

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The Access Thyroglobulin Antibody II assay (TgAb) is a sequential 2-step immunoenzymatic (sandwich) assay. A sample is added to a reaction vessel with paramagnetic particles coated with the thyroglobulin protein. The serum TgAb binds to the thyroglobulin. After incubation in a reaction vessel, materials bound to the solid phase are held in place by a magnetic field, while unbound materials are washed away. The thyroglobulin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate is added and binds to the TgAb. After the second incubation, materials bound to the solid phase are held in place by a magnetic field, while unbound materials are washed away. Then, the chemiluminescent substrate is added to the reaction vessel and light generated by the reaction is measured with a luminometer.(Instruction manual: Thyroglobulin Antibody II Assay. Beckman Coulter, Inc; 2019)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86800 

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
TGAB Thyroglobulin Antibody, S 56536-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
TGAB Thyroglobulin Antibody, S 56536-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports