Test Catalog

Test Id : CYSQN

Cystinuria Profile, Quantitative, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of cystinuria

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test provides a biochemical diagnosis of cystinuria through the measurement of cystine, lysine, ornithine, and arginine.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Cystinuria Profile, QN, 24 hour

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Amino Acid

Cystine, Quantitative, Urine (order when client indicates 24 hr TV)


Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Necessary Information

1. 24-Hour volume is required.

2. Patient's age is required.

3. Include family history, clinical condition (asymptomatic or acute episode), diet, and drug therapy information.


Question ID Description Answers
TM38 Collection Duration
VL36 Urine Volume

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Specimen Volume: 5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect before intravenous pyelogram.

2. Collect urine for 24 hours.

3. Add 20 mL of toluene as preservative at start of collection. If toluene is not available, refrigerate during collection.

4. Mix well before taking 5-mL aliquot.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test


Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative must occur prior to beginning the collection. If toluene is not available, refrigerate during and after collection.








50% Acetic Acid


Boric Acid


Diazolidinyl Urea


6M Hydrochloric Acid


6M Nitric Acid


Sodium Carbonate






Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Frozen (preferred) 70 days
Refrigerated 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of cystinuria

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test provides a biochemical diagnosis of cystinuria through the measurement of cystine, lysine, ornithine, and arginine.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Cystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from poor absorption and reabsorption of the amino acid cystine in the intestines and kidneys. This leads to an accumulation of poorly soluble cystine in the urine and results in the production of kidney stones (urolithiasis). Symptoms may include acute episodes of abdominal or lower back pain and the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria). Recurrent episodes of kidney stones may result in frequent urinary tract infections, which may ultimately result in renal insufficiency. The combined incidence of cystinuria has been estimated to be 1 in 7000.


Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease, but some heterozygous carriers have an autosomal dominant, incomplete penetrance appearance with elevated, but typically nondisease-causing, urinary cystine excretion. Cystinuria is caused by variants in genes, SLC3A1 on chromosome 2p and SLC7A9 on chromosome 19q. Initially, the disease was classified into subtypes I, II, and III (type II and III are also referred as nontype-I) based on the amount of urinary cystine excreted in heterozygous parental specimens. A new classification system has been proposed to distinguish the various forms of cystinuria: type A, due to variants in the SLC3A1 gene; type B, due to variants in the SLC7A9 gene; and type AB, due to 1 variant in each SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 gene.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.


3-15 years: 11-53 mcmol/24 h

> or =16 years: 28-115 mcmol/24 h



3-15 years: 19-140 mcmol/24 h

> or =16 years: 32-290 mcmol/24 h



3-15 years: 3-16 mcmol/24 h

> or =16 years: 5-70 mcmol/24 h



3-15 years: 10-25 mcmol/24 h

> or =16 years: 13-64 mcmol/24 h


Conversion Formulas:

Result in mcmol/24 hours x 0.24=result in mg/24 h

Result in mg/24 hours x 4.17=result in mcmol/24 h

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Individuals who are homozygous or compound heterozygous for cystinuria excrete large amounts of cystine in urine, but the amount varies markedly. Urinary excretion of other dibasic amino acids (arginine, lysine, and ornithine) is also typically elevated. Plasma concentrations are generally normal or slightly decreased.


Individuals who are homozygous and heterozygous for nontype I cystinuria can be distinguished by the pattern of urinary amino acids excretion: homozygous individuals secrete large amounts of cystine and all 3 dibasic amino acids, whereas heterozygous individuals secrete more lysine and cystine than arginine and ornithine.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1.Saravakos P, Kokkinou V, Giannatos E: Cystinuria: current diagnosis and management. Urology. 2014 Apr;83(4):693-699

2.Servais A, Thomas K, Strologo LD, et al. Cystinuria: clinical practice recommendation. Kidney Int. 2021 Jan;99(1):48-58

3.Palacin M, Goodyer P, Nunes V, Gasparini P: Cystinuria. In: Valle DL, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw Hill; 2019. Accessed March 08, 2023. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225555540

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Quantitative analysis of the amino acids (AA) cystine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine is performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) by labeling amino acids present in urine with aTRAQ Reagent 121. Samples are dried and reconstituted with aTRAQ Reagent 113-labeled Standard Mix. Amino acids are separated and detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of amino acids are established by comparison of their ion intensity (121-labeled amino acids) to that of their respective internal standards (113-labeled amino acids). (Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

2 weeks

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CYSQN Cystinuria Profile, QN, 24 hour 90785-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
TM38 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL36 Urine Volume 3167-4
3583 Cystine 13966-7
3589 Lysine 25464-9
3590 Ornithine 25491-2
3591 Arginine 25322-9
50447 Reviewed By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports