Test Catalog

Test Id : ARBOP

Arbovirus Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding the diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis (California [LaCrosse], St. Louis, eastern equine and western equine encephalitis)

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CAVP Calif Virus (LaCrosse)IgG and IgM,S Yes Yes
EEEP East Equine Enceph Ab, IgG and IgM, S Yes Yes
STLP St. Louis Enceph Ab, IgG and IgM, S Yes Yes
WEEP West Equine Enceph Ab,IgG and IgM,S Yes Yes

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Algorithm

-Mosquito-borne Disease Laboratory Testing

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Arbovirus Ab Panel IgG and IgM, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Alphavirus (old Arbovirus, group A)

Arbovirus Serology

California Virus (LaCrosse) Antibodies

Central Nervous System Screen

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)

Encephalitis Antibodies

Flavivirus (old Arbovirus, group B)

LaCrosse Viral Antibodies

Saint Louis Encephalitis Antibodies

St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE)

Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Algorithm

-Mosquito-borne Disease Laboratory Testing

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

This panel tests for 4 arboviruses; to test for a specific arbovirus, the following tests are individually orderable:

-CAVP / California Virus (La Crosse) Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

-EEEP / Eastern Equine Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

-STLP / St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

-WEEP / Western Equine Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.15 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding the diagnosis of arboviral encephalitis (California [LaCrosse], St. Louis, eastern equine and western equine encephalitis)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Algorithm

-Mosquito-borne Disease Laboratory Testing

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

California (LaCrosse) Virus:

California (LaCrosse) virus is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and is one of the arthropod-borne encephalitides. It is transmitted by various Aedes and Culex mosquitoes and is found in such intermediate hosts as the rabbit, squirrel, chipmunk, and field mouse. California meningoencephalitis is usually mild and occurs in late summer. Ninety percent of infections are seen in children less than 15 years of age, usually from rural areas. The incubation period is estimated to be 7 days, and acute illness lasts 10 days or less in most instances. Typically, the first symptoms are nonspecific, lasting 1 to 3 days, and are followed by the appearance of central nervous system (CNS) signs and symptoms such as stiff neck, lethargy, and seizures, which usually abate within 1 week. Symptomatic infection is almost never recognized in those over 18 years old. The most important sequela of California virus encephalitis is epilepsy, which occurs in about 10% of children; almost always in patients who have had seizures during the acute illness. A few patients (estimated 2%) have persistent paresis. Learning disabilities or other objective cognitive deficits have been reported in a small proportion (no more than 2%) of patients. Learning performance and behavior of most recovered patients are not distinguishable from comparison groups in these same areas.

 

Eastern Equine Encephalitis:

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is within the alphavirus group. It is a low prevalence cause of human disease in the eastern and Gulf Coast states. EEE is maintained by a cycle of mosquito/wild bird transmission, peaking in the summer and early fall, when man may become an adventitious host. The most common clinically apparent manifestation is a mild undifferentiated febrile illness, usually with headache. CNS involvement is demonstrated in only a minority of infected individuals, it is more abrupt and more severe than with other arboviruses, with children being more susceptible to severe disease. Fatality rates are approximately 70%.

 

St. Louis Encephalitis:

Areas of outbreaks of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) since 1933 have involved the western United States, Texas, the Ohio-Mississippi Valley, and Florida. The vector of transmission is the mosquito. Peak incidence occurs in summer and early autumn. Disease onset is characterized by generalized malaise, fever, chills, headache, drowsiness, nausea, and sore throat or cough, followed in 1 to 4 days by meningeal and neurologic signs. The severity of illness increases with advancing age; persons over 60 years have the highest frequency of encephalitis. Symptoms of irritability, sleeplessness, depression, memory loss, and headaches can last up to 3 years.

 

Western Equine Encephalitis:

The virus that causes western equine encephalitis (WEE) is widely distributed throughout the United States and Canada; disease occurs almost exclusively in the western states and Canadian provinces. The relative absence of the disease in the eastern United States probably reflects a paucity of the vector mosquito species, Culex tarsalis, and possibly a lower pathogenicity of local virus strains. The disease usually begins suddenly with malaise, fever, and headache, often with nausea and vomiting. Vertigo, photophobia, sore throat, respiratory symptoms, abdominal pain, and myalgia are also common. Over a few days, the headache intensifies; drowsiness and restlessness may merge into a coma in severe cases. In infants and children, the onset may be more abrupt than for adults. WEE should be suspected in any case of febrile CNS disease from an endemic area. Infants are highly susceptible to CNS disease, with about 20% of cases under 1 year of age. There is an excess of males with WEE clinical encephalitis, averaging about twice the number of infections detected in females. After recovery from the acute disease, patients may require from several months to 2 years to overcome the fatigue, headache, and irritability. Infants and children are at higher risk of permanent brain damage after recovery than adults.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

CALIFORNIA VIRUS (La CROSSE) ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY

IgG: <1:10

IgM: <1:10 

Reference values apply to all ages.

 

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY

IgG: <1:10

IgM: <1:10 

Reference values apply to all ages.

 

ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS ANTIBODY

IgG: <1:10

IgM: <1:10 

Reference values apply to all ages.

 

WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS

IgG: <1:10

IgM: <1:10 

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

In patients infected with these or related viruses, IgM class antibody is reliably detected within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking and rapidly declining within 3 months. Results from a single serum specimen can differentiate early (acute) infection from past infection with immunity if IgM is positive (suggests acute infection).

 

IgG antibody is generally detectable within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking within 1 to 2 months, and declining slowly thereafter. A single serum specimen IgG of 1:10 or greater indicates exposure to the virus. A 4-fold or greater rise in IgG antibody titer in acute and convalescent sera indicates recent infection.

 

In the United States, it is unusual for any patient to show positive reactions to more than 1 of the arboviral antigens, although Western equine encephalitis and Eastern equine encephalitis antigens will show a noticeable cross-reactivity.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

All results must be correlated with clinical history and other data available to the attending physician.

 

Specimens collected within the first 2 weeks after onset are variably negative for IgG antibody and should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of arboviral disease. If arboviral infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected and tested 10 to 21 days later.

 

Since cross-reactivity with dengue fever virus does occur with St. Louis encephalitis antigens and, therefore, cannot be differentiated further. The specific virus responsible for such a titer may be deduced by the travel history of the patient, along with available medical and epidemiological data, unless the virus can be isolated.

 

Eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses show some cross-reactivity; however, antibody response to the infecting virus is typically at least 8-fold higher.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Gonzalez-Scarano F, Nathanson N: Bunyaviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DN, eds. Fields Virology. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Raven Press; 1990:1195-1228

2. Donat JF, Hable-Rhodes KH, Groover RV, Smith TF: Etiology and outcome in 42 children with acute nonbacterial meningo-encephalitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1980;55:156-160

3. Tsai TF: Arboviruses. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, et al: eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology; 1999:1107-1124

4. Calisher CH: Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994;7:89-116

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Dilutions of test sera are prepared and allowed to react with substrate cells infected with the appropriate arbovirus. If IgG antibodies to this virus are present in the serum of the patient, an antigen-antibody complex will develop that can be detected by a fluorescein-labeled antibody directed to human globulin.(Tsai TF: Arboviruses. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, et al: eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology; 1999:1107-1124; Beaty BJ, Casals J, Brown KL, et al: Indirect fluorescent-antibody technique for serological diagnosis of LaCrosse [California] virus infections. J Clin Microbiol. 1982;15:429-434; Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

May through October: Monday through Friday

November through April: Monday, Wednesday, Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

2 weeks

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86651 x 2-California virus (La Crosse) encephalitis antibody, IgG and IgM

86652 x 2-Eastern equine encephalitis antibody, IgG and IgM

86653 x 2-St. Louis encephalitis antibody, IgG and IgM

86654 x 2-Western equine encephalitis antibody, IgG and IgM

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
ARBOP Arbovirus Ab Panel IgG and IgM, S 49093-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Result LOINC Value Tooltip

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports