Test Catalog

Test Id : TTGA

Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody, IgA, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessment of tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies for evaluating patients suspected of having celiac disease, including patients with compatible clinical symptoms, patients with atypical symptoms, and individuals at increased risk (family history, previous diagnosis with associated disorder, positivity for HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8)

 

Screening for dermatitis herpetiformis, in conjunction with endomysial antibody test

 

Monitoring response to gluten-free diet in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac disease.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Tissue Transglutaminase Ab, IgA, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Celiac Disease

Coeliac Disease

Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG)

Tissue Transglutaminase Ab IgA

Transglutaminase(tTG)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

Cascade testing is recommended for celiac disease. Cascade testing ensures that testing proceeds in an algorithmic fashion. The following cascades are available; select the appropriate one for your specific patient situation.

-CDCOM / Celiac Disease Comprehensive Cascade, Serum and Whole Blood: complete testing including HLA DQ

-CDSP / Celiac Disease Serology Cascade, Serum: complete serology testing excluding HLA DQ

-CDGF / Celiac Disease Gluten-Free Cascade, Serum and Whole Blood: for patients already adhering to a gluten-free diet

 

To order individual tests, see Celiac Disease Diagnostic Testing Algorithm.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 21 days
Frozen 21 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessment of tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies for evaluating patients suspected of having celiac disease, including patients with compatible clinical symptoms, patients with atypical symptoms, and individuals at increased risk (family history, previous diagnosis with associated disorder, positivity for HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8)

 

Screening for dermatitis herpetiformis, in conjunction with endomysial antibody test

 

Monitoring response to gluten-free diet in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac disease.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Celiac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy, celiac sprue) results from an immune-mediated inflammatory process following ingestion of wheat, rye, or barley proteins that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals.(1) The inflammation in celiac disease occurs primarily in the mucosa of the small intestine, which leads to villous atrophy. Common clinical manifestations related to gastrointestinal inflammation include abdominal pain, malabsorption, diarrhea, and/or constipation. Clinical symptoms of celiac disease are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. Other common manifestations of celiac disease include failure to grow (delayed puberty and short stature), iron deficiency, recurrent fetal loss, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (canker sores), dental enamel hypoplasia, and dermatitis herpetiformis. Patients with celiac disease may also present with neuropsychiatric manifestations including ataxia and peripheral neuropathy and are at increased risk for development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The disease is also associated with other clinical disorders including thyroiditis, type I diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, and IgA deficiency.

 

Individuals with family members who have celiac disease are at increased risk of developing the disease.(2) Genetic susceptibility is related to specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers. More than 97% of individuals with celiac disease in the United States have DQ2 and/or DQ8 HLA markers, compared to approximately 40% of the general population. For this reason, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are considered genetic risk factors for celiac disease and are required, but not sufficient, for the disease process to occur.

 

A definitive diagnosis of celiac disease requires a jejunal biopsy demonstrating villous atrophy.(3) Given the invasive nature and cost of the biopsy, serologic and genetic laboratory tests may be used to identify individuals with a high probability of having celiac disease. Because no single laboratory test can be relied upon completely to establish a diagnosis of celiac disease, individuals with positive laboratory results may be referred for small intestinal biopsy, thereby decreasing the number of unnecessary invasive procedures (see Celiac Disease Diagnostic Testing Algorithm). In terms of serology, celiac disease is associated with a variety of autoantibodies, including endomysial antibody (EMA), tissue transglutaminase (tTG), and deamidated gliadin antibodies.(4) Although the IgA isotype of these antibodies usually predominates in celiac disease, individuals may also produce IgG isotypes, particularly if the individual is IgA deficient. The most sensitive and specific serologic test is tTG IgA isotype, in individuals who produce sufficient total IgA. For individuals who are IgA deficient, testing for tTG and deamidated gliadin IgG antibodies is required.

 

The treatment for celiac disease is maintenance of a gluten-free diet. In most patients who adhere to this diet, concentrations of associated autoantibodies decline, which is sometimes also accompanied by reconstitution of the small intestinal villi. In most patients, an improvement in clinical symptoms is observed. For evaluation purposes, all serologic tests ordered for the diagnosis of celiac disease should be performed while the patient is on a gluten-containing diet. Once a patient has initiated the gluten-free diet, serologic testing may be repeated to assess the response to treatment. In some patients, it may take up to 1 year for antibody titers to normalize. Persistently elevated results suggest poor adherence to the gluten-free diet or the possibility of refractory celiac disease.

 

See Celiac Disease Diagnostic Testing Algorithm for the recommended approach to a patient suspected of celiac disease.

 

An algorithm is available for monitoring the patient's response to treatment, see Celiac Disease Routine Treatment Monitoring Algorithm.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<4.0 U/mL (negative)

4.0-10.0 U/mL (weak positive)

>10.0 U/mL (positive)

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Positive results for tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA antibodies are consistent with a diagnosis for celiac disease and possibly for dermatitis herpetiformis. For individuals with moderately to strongly positive results, a diagnosis of celiac disease is possible and a small intestinal  biopsy should be considered to confirm the diagnosis.

 

Negative results for tTG IgA antibodies indicate a decreased likelihood of celiac disease.

 

A decrease in the concentration of tTG IgA may begin after initiation of a gluten-free diet and could indicate a response to therapy.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

This test should not be solely relied upon to establish a diagnosis of celiac disease. It should be used to identify patients who have an increased probability of having celiac disease and in whom a small intestinal biopsy is recommended.

 

Affected individuals who have been on a gluten-free diet prior to testing may have a negative result.

 

For individuals who test negative, IgA deficiency should be considered. If total IgA is normal and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA is negative, there is a low probability of the patient having celiac disease and a biopsy may not be necessary.

 

If serology is negative or there is substantial clinical doubt remaining, then further investigation should be performed with endoscopy and bowel biopsy. This is especially important in patients with frank malabsorptive symptoms since many syndromes can mimic celiac disease. For the patient with frank malabsorptive symptoms, bowel biopsy should be performed regardless of serologic test results.

 

The antibody pattern in dermatitis herpetiformis may be more variable than in celiac disease; therefore, both endomysial and tTG antibody determinations are recommended to maximize the sensitivity of the serologic tests.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Rubin JE, Crowe SE: Celiac disease. Ann Int Med. 2020 Jan 7;172(1):ITC1-ITC16

2. Lebwohl B, Rubio-Tapia A: Epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2021 Jan;160(1):63-75

3. Rubio-Tapia A, Hill ID, Kelly CP, Calderwood AH, Murray JA, American College of Gastroenterology: ACG clinical guidelines: diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 May;108(5):656-676

4. Penny HA, Raju SA, Sanders DS: Progress in the serology-based diagnosis and management of adult celiac disease. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Mar;14(3):147-154

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Microwells are precoated with recombinant human tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antigen expressed in Baculovirus cells using  complementary DNA coding for the long-spliced isoform of human tTG.

 

Calibrators, controls, and diluted patient samples are added to the wells, and autoantibodies recognizing the tTG antigen bind during the first incubation. After washing the wells to remove all unbound proteins, purified peroxidase-labeled rabbit antihuman IgA (alpha chain specific) conjugate is added. The conjugate binds to the captured human autoantibody, and the excess unbound conjugate is removed by a further wash step.

 

Bound conjugate is visualized with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine substrate, which gives a blue reaction product, the intensity of which is proportional to the concentration of the autoantibody in the sample. Phosphoric acid is added to each well to stop the reaction. This produces a yellow end point color, which is read at 450 nm. Testing is performed on the Agility instrument by Dynex.(Package insert: QUANTA Lite R h-tTG IgA. Inova Diagnostics, Inc; rev 8, 01/2020)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Saturday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86364

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
TTGA Tissue Transglutaminase Ab, IgA, S 46128-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
TTGA Tissue Transglutaminase Ab, IgA, S 46128-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports