Test Catalog

Test Id : MMAS

Methylmalonic Acid, Quantitative, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating children with signs and symptoms of methylmalonic acidemia using serum specimens

 

Evaluating individuals with signs and symptoms associated with a variety of causes of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Methylmalonic Acid, QN, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

B12 Deficiency

CblC

Cobalamin Deficiency

Methylmalonate

Methylmalonic Acid (MMA)

MMA (Methylmalonic Acid)

Methylmalonic Aciduria

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Red top

Acceptable: Serum gel

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume:1.5 mL

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send 1 of the following forms with the specimen:

-General Request (T239)

-Benign Hematology Test Request (T755)

-Biochemical Genetics Test Request (T798)

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 48 days
Ambient 48 days
Frozen 48 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating children with signs and symptoms of methylmalonic acidemia using serum specimens

 

Evaluating individuals with signs and symptoms associated with a variety of causes of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Elevated levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) result from inherited defects of enzymes involved in MMA metabolism or inherited or acquired deficiencies of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or its downstream metabolites. Acquired deficiencies of vitamin B12 are much more common and can be due to intestinal malabsorption, impaired digestion, or poor diet. Older adult patients with cobalamin deficiency may present with peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, loss of position and vibration senses, memory impairment, depression, and dementia in the absence of anemia. Other conditions such as kidney insufficiency, hypovolemia, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine also contribute to the possible causes of mild methylmalonic acidemia and aciduria.

 

MMA is also a specific diagnostic marker for the group of disorders collectively called methylmalonic acidemia, which include at least 7 different complementation groups. Two of them (mut0 and mut-) reflect deficiencies of the apoenzyme portion of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Two other disorders (CblA and CblB) are associated with abnormalities of the adenosylcobalamin synthesis pathway. CblC, CblD, and CblF deficiencies lead to impaired synthesis of both adenosyl- and methylcobalamin.

 

Since the first reports of this disorder in 1967, thousands of cases have been diagnosed worldwide. Newborn screening identifies approximately 1 in 30,000 live births with a methylmalonic acidemia. The most frequent clinical manifestations are neonatal or infantile metabolic ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Excessive protein intake may cause life-threatening episodes of metabolic decompensation and remains a lifelong risk unless treatment is closely monitored, including serum and urine MMA levels.

 

Several studies have suggested that the determination of serum or urinary methylmalonic acid could be a more reliable marker of vitamin B12 deficiency than direct vitamin B12 determination.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =0.40 nmol/mL

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

In pediatric patients, markedly elevated methylmalonic acid values indicate a probable diagnosis of methylmalonic acidemia. Additional confirmatory testing must be performed.

 

In adults, moderately elevated values indicate a likely vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Diet, nutritional status, and age should be considered in the evaluation of serum or urine methylmalonic acid level.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Fenton WA, Gravel RA, Rosenblatt DS: Disorders of propionate and methylmalonate metabolism. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill, 2019. Accessed October 6, 2021. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225086103&bookid=2709

2. Klee GG: Cobalamin and folate evaluation measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine vs vitamin B12 and folate. Clin Chem. 2000 Aug;46(8):1277-1283

3. Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS: Inherited disorders of folate and cobalamin transport and metabolism. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill, 2019. Accessed October 6, 2021. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225548307&bookid=2709

4. Vashi P, Edwin P, Popiel B, et al. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine as indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency in cancer. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 25;11(1):e0147843

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) stable isotope dilution analysis. The specimen is mixed with an internal standard (methyl-d3-malonic acid). MMA and d3-MMA are isolated by solid phase extraction. LC-MS/MS is performed using mobile phases and a short column to separate MMA and d3-MMA from the bulk of the specimen matrix. The MS/MS is operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) negative mode to follow the precursor to product species transitions. Separation of MMA/d3-MMA from the more physiologically abundant succinic acid is accomplished by the careful selection of MRM transitions and optimization of the LC separation. The ratios of the extracted peak areas of MMA to d3-MMA determined by LC-MS/MS are used to calculate the concentration of MMA present in the sample.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83921

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MMAS Methylmalonic Acid, QN, S 13964-2
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
80289 Methylmalonic Acid, QN, S 13964-2

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports