Test Catalog

Test Id : COS

Cobalt, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Detecting cobalt toxicity

 

Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear

 

This test is not useful for assessment of vitamin B12 activity.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Cobalt, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Co (Cobalt)

Cobalt (Co)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

The FDA recommended test for monitoring cobalt in patients with metal-on-metal implants is COWB / Cobalt, Blood.

 

This test should not be ordered to assess vitamin B12 activity. For that assessment see B12 / Vitamin B12 Assay, Serum or ACASM / Pernicious Anemia Cascade, Serum.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metal tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies: Metal Free Specimen Vial (T173)

Collection Container/Tube: Plain, royal blue-top Vacutainer plastic trace element blood collection tube

Submission Container/Tube: 7-mL Mayo metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial

Specimen Volume: 1.6 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Allow the specimen to clot for 30 minutes; then centrifuge the specimen to separate serum from the cellular fraction.

2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into a Mayo metal-free, polypropylene vial, avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport for complete instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days METAL FREE
Ambient 28 days METAL FREE
Frozen 28 days METAL FREE

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Detecting cobalt toxicity

 

Monitoring metallic prosthetic implant wear

 

This test is not useful for assessment of vitamin B12 activity.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Cobalt is rare but widely distributed in the environment, used in the manufacture of hard alloys with high melting points and resistance to oxidation; cobalt alloys are used in manufacture of some artificial joint prosthesis devices. Cobalt salts are used in the glass and pigment industry. Previously, cobalt salts were sometimes used as foam stabilizers in the brewing industry; this practice was banned due to the cardiovascular diseases it induced. The radioactive isotope of cobalt, (60)Co, is used as a gamma emitter in experimental biology, cancer therapy, and industrial radiography.

 

Cobalt is an essential cofactor in vitamin B12 metabolism. Cobalt deficiency has not been reported in humans.

 

Cobalt is not highly toxic, but large doses will produce adverse clinical manifestations. Acute symptoms are pulmonary edema, allergy, nausea, vomiting, hemorrhage, and renal failure. Chronic symptoms include pulmonary syndrome, skin disorders, and thyroid abnormalities. The inhalation of dust during machining of cobalt alloyed metals can lead to interstitial lung disease.

 

Serum cobalt concentrations are likely to be increased above the reference range in patients with joint prosthesis containing cobalt. Prosthetic devices produced by Depuy Company, Dow Corning, Howmedica, LCS, PCA, Osteonics, Richards Company, Tricon, and Whiteside are typically made of chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum. This list of products is incomplete, and these products change occasionally; see prosthesis product information for each device for composition details.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<1.0 ng/mL

<10.0 ng/mL (Metal-on-metal implant)

Reference values apply to all ages.

 

The reported unit of measurement for cobalt of ng/mL is equivalent to mcg/L.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Concentrations greater than or equal to 1.0 ng/mL indicate possible environmental or occupational exposure. Cobalt concentrations associated with toxicity must be interpreted in the context of the source of exposure. If cobalt is ingested, concentrations greater than 5 ng/mL suggest major exposure and likely toxicity. If cobalt exposure is due to orthopedic implant wear, there are no large case number reports associating high circulating serum cobalt with toxicity.

 

There are no Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) blood or urine criteria for occupational exposure to cobalt.

 

Prosthesis wear is known to result in increased circulating concentration of metal ions. Modest increase (4-10 ng/mL) in serum cobalt concentration is likely to be associated with a prosthetic device in good condition. Serum concentrations above 10 ng/mL in a patient with cobalt-based implant suggest significant prosthesis wear. Increased serum trace element concentrations in the absence of corroborating clinical information do not independently predict prosthesis wear or failure. However, the FDA recommends testing cobalt in EDTA anticoagulated whole blood in symptomatic patients with metal-on-metal implants.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Because this test uses mass spectrometry detection, the radioactive form of cobalt, (60)Co, is not quantified.

 

Specimen collection procedures for cobalt require special specimen collection tubes, rigorous attention to ultraclean specimen collection and handling procedures, and analysis in an ultraclean facility. Unless all of these precautions are taken, elevated serum cobalt results may be an incidental and misleading finding.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Tower SS: Arthroprosthetic cobaltism: neurological and cardiac manifestations in two patients with metal-on-metal arthroplasty: A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:1-5

2. Keegan GM, Learmonth ID, Case CP: A systematic comparison of the actual, potential, and theoretical health effects of cobalt and chromium exposures from industry and surgical implants. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38:645-674

3. De Smet K, De Hann R, Calistri A, et al: Metal ion measurement as a diagnostic tool to identify problems with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:202-208

4. Lison D, De Boeck M, Verougstraete V, Kirsch-Volders M: Update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:619-625

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Cobalt in serum is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in kinetic energy discrimination (KED) mode using rhodium (Rh) as an internal standard and a salt matrix calibration.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 4 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83018

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
COS Cobalt, S 5627-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
80084 Cobalt, S 5627-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports