Test Catalog

Test Id : PLAFL

Platelet Surface Glycoprotein by Flow Cytometry, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identification of markedly decreased CD41 (GPIIb) and CD61 (GPIIIa) expression levels, which are diagnostic for Glanzmann thrombasthenia

 

Identification of markedly decreased CD42a (GPIX) and CD42b (GPIb-alpha) expression levels, which are diagnostic for Bernard-Soulier syndrome

 

Identification of decreased GPVI expression, which suggests collagen receptor deficiency

 

Identification of decreased CD49b (GPIa), which suggests collagen receptor deficiency

Highlights

This test serves as a confirmatory test for platelet aggregation studies.

 

Markedly decreased platelet surface glycoprotein expression levels are diagnostic for various hereditary or acquired platelet disorders.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunophenotyping

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Platelet Glycoprotein Flow, B

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole Blood ACD

Shipping Instructions

Specimen must be shipped ambient and arrive within 96 hours of draw.

 

Ship specimen overnight in an Ambient Shipping Box-Critical Specimens Only (T668) following the instructions in the mailer.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Ambient Shipping Box-Critical Specimens Only (T668)

Collection Container/Tube: ACD solution (A or B)

Specimen Volume: 6 mL

Pediatric Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions: Do not transfer blood to other containers.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. Platelet Esoteric Testing Patient Information in Special Instructions

2. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Coagulation Test Request (T753) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Adult: 1 mL

Pediatric 200 mcL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole Blood ACD Ambient (preferred) 4 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identification of markedly decreased CD41 (GPIIb) and CD61 (GPIIIa) expression levels, which are diagnostic for Glanzmann thrombasthenia

 

Identification of markedly decreased CD42a (GPIX) and CD42b (GPIb-alpha) expression levels, which are diagnostic for Bernard-Soulier syndrome

 

Identification of decreased GPVI expression, which suggests collagen receptor deficiency

 

Identification of decreased CD49b (GPIa), which suggests collagen receptor deficiency

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Platelets have essential roles in primary hemostasis. Exposed collagen at a vascular damage site can activate platelets via collagen receptor GPVI and GPIa and bind shear-stretched multimeric VWF proteins, which subsequently interact with the platelet surface receptor, GPIb-V-IX. Upon full activation, platelets can aggregate by binding to fibrinogen through activated GPIIb-GPIIIa receptors. Deficiency of platelet surface glycoproteins can cause bleeding diathesis.

 

Platelet flow cytometric analysis is the preferred method to assess hereditary platelet disorders due to quantitative surface glycoprotein (GP) deficiencies. GP expression levels can be measured by using fluorescent-conjugated GP-specific antibodies and their fluorescent intensities can be compared to normal ranges of various glycoproteins.

 

CD Number

Glycoprotein Name

Integrin Name

CD41

GPIIb

Alpha 2b

CD42a

GPIX

NA

CD42b

GPIb-alpha

NA

CD49b

GPIa

Alpha 2

CD61

GPIIIa

Beta 3

NA

GPVI

NA

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

GPIIb CD41: > or =70.0% (Normal Range-Median)

GPIIIa CD61: > or =70.0% (Normal Range-Median)

GPIX CD42a: > or =70.0% (Normal Range-Median)

GPIb-alpha CD42b: > or =70.0% (Normal Range-Median)

GPIa CD49b: > or =60.0% (Normal Range-Median)

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

CD Markers

% Reference Range Median

Comments

CD41 and CD61

50%-69%

(Marginally)

Marginally decreased platelet surface receptors CD41 (GPIIb) and CD61 (GPIIIa) are of uncertain clinical significance. This finding could be a laboratory artifact due to suboptimal sample condition, benign polymorphisms, or a heterozygous state of Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

30%-50%: (Moderately)

 

<30%: (Markedly)

Platelet surface expression of CD41 (GPIIb) and CD61 (GPIIIa) are moderately or markedly decreased. This finding is suggestive for a variant of Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

CD42a and CD42b

 

 

50%-69%

(Marginally)

Marginally decreased platelet surface receptors CD42a (GPIX) and CD42b (GPIb-alpha) are of uncertain clinical significance. This finding could be a laboratory artifact due to suboptimal sample condition, benign polymorphisms, or a heterozygous state of Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

30%-50%: (Moderately)

 

<30%: (Markedly)

Platelet surface expression of CD42a (GPIX) and CD42b (GPIb-alpha) are moderately or markedly decreased. This finding is suggestive for a variant of Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

CD49b

30%-59%

(Marginally)

Marginally decreased platelet surface receptor CD49b (GPIa) is of uncertain clinical significance. This finding could be a laboratory artifact due to suboptimal sample condition, a benign polymorphism, or a variant of platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein Ia/IIa deficiency. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

10%-30% (moderately)

 

<10%

(Markedly)

Platelet surface expression of CD49b (GPIa) is moderately or markedly decreased. This finding is suggestive for a variant of a variant of platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein Ia/IIa deficiency. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

GPVI

50%-69%

(Marginally)

Marginally decreased platelet surface receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is of uncertain clinical significance. This finding could be a laboratory artifact due to suboptimal sample condition, a benign polymorphism or a variant of platelet collagen receptor GPVI deficiency. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

30%-50% (moderately)

 

<30%

(Markedly)

Platelet surface expression of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is moderately or markedly decreased. This finding is suggestive for a variant of a variant of platelet collagen receptor GPVI deficiency. Recommend correlation with patient's clinical findings and results of platelet functional studies, and consider repeating platelet glycoprotein profile studies by flow cytometry to verify the present finding if clinically indicated.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Suboptimal sample condition due to improper blood draw, transportation or storage may cause fluctuation of platelet surface receptors and consequently influence the results of platelet surface receptor measurement by flow cytometry.

Supportive Data

Platelet glycoprotein flow cytometry method was established in the Mayo special coagulation laboratory in 2009. Between the years of 2009 to 2014, a total of 155 clinical patients were tested. The flow cytometry results were compared with the final impressions of platelet light transmission aggregation testing. There were 7 samples that had flow cytometric features of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 samples that had flow cytometric features of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, and 3 samples that had flow cytometric features of May-Hegglin anomaly. All flow cytometric results were concordant with platelet light transmission aggregation results and other clinical findings.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Miller, JL: Glycoprotein analysis for the diagnostic evaluation of platelet disorders. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2009;35(2):224-232

2. Kannan M, Ahmad F, Yadav BK, et al: Carrier detection in Glanzmann thrombasthenia: comparison of flow cytometry and Western blot with respect to DNA mutation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;130(1):93-98

3. Savoia A, Pastore A, De Rocco D, et al: Clinical and genetic aspects of Bernard-Soulier syndrome: searching for genotype/phenotype correlations. Haematologica. 2011;96(3):417-423

4. Nurden AT, Freson K, Selifsohn U: Inherited platelet disorders. Haemophilia. 2012;18(4):154-160

5. Dumont B, Lasne D, Rothschild C, et al: Absence of collagen-induced platelet activation caused by compound heterozygous GPVI mutations. Blood. 2009;114(9):1900-1903

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood platelets is performed using the following antibodies:

 

Panel: CD41 (IIb), CD42a (IX), CD42b (Ib-alpha), CD49b (GPIa), CD61 (GPIIIa), and GPVI.

For sample quality purposes CD62P is evaluated.

 

Using whole blood collected in ACD (-A or -B), platelet surface GPIa, Ib-alpha, IIb, IIIa, VI and IX expression levels are measured by flow cytometry method. Platelets in whole blood are stained with various fluorochrome-labeled primary antibodies and fixed. Then the platelet surface fluorescent intensities of various bound antibodies are measured by flow cytometers. Platelets are first gated by forward and side scatter. Mean fluorescent intensities are recorded and converted to percentage of a median fluorescent intensity of a normal donor study of 20 healthy donors. If the percentage of expression of a glycoprotein (GP) is lower than the corresponding normal range, a deficiency of a GP is detected.(Unpublished Mayo Method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

88184-Flow cytometry; first cell surface, cytoplasmic or nuclear marker

88185-Flow cytometry; additional cell surface, cytoplasmic or nuclear marker (each) X5

88187-Flow cytometry interpretation, 2 to 8 markers

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PLAFL Platelet Glycoprotein Flow, B 93320-0
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
CK111 GPIIb CD41 93319-2
CK112 GPIIIa CD61 93318-4
CK113 GPIX CD42a 93317-6
CK114 GPIb-alpha CD42b 93316-8
CK115 GPIa CD49b 93315-0
CK116 GPVI 93314-3
CK117 Final Diagnosis 93313-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports