Test Catalog

Test Id : VEGF

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Plasma

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of patients with suspected POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome, particularly in differentiating from other forms of polyneuropathy and/or monoclonal plasma cell disorders

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Vascular Endothelial Growth Fctr, P

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching




Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Plasma EDTA

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Sarstedt Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T914)

Collection Container/Tube: Lavender-top (EDTA)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Immediately after specimen collection, place the tube on wet ice.

2. Centrifuge at 4 degrees C, 1500 x g for 10 minutes.

3. Aliquot plasma into plastic vial.

4. Freeze specimen within 2 hours of collection.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.3 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject
Heat-treated Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma EDTA Frozen (preferred) 21 days
Refrigerated 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of patients with suspected POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome, particularly in differentiating from other forms of polyneuropathy and/or monoclonal plasma cell disorders

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels).(1) In mammals, there are 5 members of the VEGF family, each arising from different genes, with VEGF-A being the most well-studied. VEGF-A promotes angiogenesis by inducing migration of endothelial cells, promoting mitosis of endothelial cells, and upregulating matrix metalloproteinase activity.(2) VEGF-A is regulated by hypoxia, with increased expression when cells detect an environment low in oxygen. Physiologically, VEGF induces new blood vessel formation during embryonic development, after tissue injury, and in response to blocked vessels.


VEGF also regulates pathological vessel formation, such as in tumor growth and metastases.(3) Angiogenesis during tumor development is complex, although it is clear that VEGF plays a key role. VEGF also regulates angiogenesis in other disease states including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration. In addition, circulating concentrations of VEGF are elevated in patients with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, a monoclonal plasma cell disorder.(4) Although the pathologic role of VEGF in POEMS is unclear, it is useful as a diagnostic marker and for assessing response to therapy.


In addition to the various genes in the VEGF family, VEGFA has multiple splicing variants. VEGFA 165 is the predominant isoform.(2) An internal study has demonstrated that the VEGF assay used by Mayo Clinic Laboratories is specific for the splice variant of VEGF-A 165 and does not detect other isoforms of VEGFA or other VEGF gene products.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

< or =96.2 pg/mL

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Elevated concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may be consistent with a diagnosis of POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome.


Decreasing concentrations of VEGF over time in a patient with POEMS syndrome may be consistent with a therapeutic response.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Elevated circulating concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may be observed in a variety of disease states, especially those associated with angiogenesis. Elevated concentrations of VEGF must be interpreted within the clinical context of the patient.


Normal concentrations of VEGF do not exclude the diagnosis of POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome.


VEGF has limited stability. Following centrifugation, plasma must be either immediately frozen or refrigerated. Samples can only be stored at refrigerated temperatures for 24 hours, after which time samples must be frozen. Storage of plasma for any length of time at room temperature is not acceptable.


The presence of bevacizumab in patient serum interferes with detection of VEGF. Caution should be taken while interpreting results of patients receiving bevacizumab therapy.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Apte RS, Chen DS, Ferrara N: VEGF in signaling and disease: Beyond discovery and development. Cell. 2019 Mar 7;176(6):1248-1264

2. Otrock ZK, Makarem JA, Shamseddine AI: Vascular endothelial growth factor family of ligands and receptors: review. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007 May-Jun;38(3):258-268

3. Siveen KS, Prabhu K, Krishnankutty R, et al: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in tumour vascularization: Potential and challenges. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;15(4):339-351

4. Brown R, Ginsberg L: POEMS syndrome: clinical update. J Neurol. 2019 Jan;266(1):268-277

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cytokine assay measures human cytokines in a 96-well spotted plate. The assay employs a sandwich immunoassay format where capture antibodies are coated on a single spot on the bottom of each well. Diluted samples, calibrators, and controls are added and to the plate. If present, VEGF will bind to the capture antibodies. After incubation, a solution containing detection antibodies conjugated with electrochemiluminescent labels is added. After a final incubation, a buffer is added that creates the appropriate chemical environment for electrochemiluminescence. The plate is then read on the QuickPlex SQ120. The machine applies a voltage that causes bound labels to emit measurable light. The QuickPlex SQ120 measures the intensity of emitted light and correlates it to a set of standards of known quantity via a 4-point logistics curve fitting method.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.


Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 to 8 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


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Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth Fctr, P 34694-0
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
63019 VEGF, P 34694-0

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports