Test Catalog

Test Id : B2GMG

Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of patients with suspected antiphospholipid syndrome by identification of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) IgG and IgM antibodies

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
GB2GP Beta 2 GP1 Ab IgG, S Yes Yes
MB2GP Beta 2 GP1 Ab IgM, S Yes Yes

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Beta 2 GP1 Ab, IgM/IgG, S

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Beta-2 GP1 Ab IgG

Beta-2 GP1 Ab IgM

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing


Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Coagulation Test Request (T753) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.4 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 21 days
Frozen 21 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluation of patients with suspected antiphospholipid syndrome by identification of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) IgG and IgM antibodies

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1, also called apolipoprotein H) is a 326-amino acid polypeptide synthesized by hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and trophoblast cells. It contains 5 homologous domains of approximately 60 amino acids each.(1,2) Domain 5, located at the C terminus, contains a hydrophobic core surrounded by 14 positively charged amino acid residues that promote electrostatic interactions with plasma membranes via interactions with negatively charged phospholipids. Complexes of beta-2 GP1 and phospholipids in vivo reveal epitopes that react with natural autoantibodies.(3) Plasma from normal individuals contains low concentrations of IgG autoantibodies to beta-2 GP1 (beta-2 GP1 antibodies) that are of moderate affinity and react with an epitope on the first domain near the N terminus.


Pathologic levels of beta-2 GP1 antibodies occur in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). APS is associated with a variety of clinical symptoms, notably, thrombosis, pregnancy complications, unexplained cutaneous circulatory disturbances (livido reticularis or pyoderma gangrenosum), thrombocytopenia or hemolytic anemia, and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Beta-2 GP1 antibodies are found with increased frequency in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus.


Beta-2 GP1 antibodies are detected in the clinical laboratory by different types of assays including immunoassays and functional coagulation assays. Immunoassays for beta-2 GP1 antibodies can be performed using either a composite substrate comprised of beta-2 GP1 plus anionic phospholipid (eg, cardiolipin or phosphatidylserine), or beta-2 GP1 alone. Antibodies detected by immunoassays that utilize composite substrates are commonly referred to as phospholipid or cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies detected using beta-2 GP1 substrate without phospholipid (so called direct assays) are referred to simply as beta-2 GP1 antibodies. Some beta-2 GP1 antibodies are capable of inhibiting clot formation in functional coagulation assays that contain low concentrations of phospholipid cofactors. Antibodies detected by functional coagulation assays are commonly referred to as lupus anticoagulants.


The diagnosis of APS requires at least 1 clinical criteria and 1 laboratory criteria be met.(4) The clinical criteria include vascular thrombosis (arterial or venous in any organ or tissue) and pregnancy morbidity (unexplained fetal death, premature birth, severe preeclampsia, or placental insufficiency). Other clinical manifestations, including heart valve disease, livedo reticularis, thrombocytopenia, nephropathy, neurological symptoms, are often associated with APS but are not included in the diagnostic criteria. The laboratory criteria for diagnosis of APS are the presence of lupus anticoagulant, the presence of IgG and/or IgM anticardiolipin antibody (>40 GPL, >40 MPL, or >99th percentile), and/or the presence of IgG and/or IgM beta-2 GP1 antibody (>99th percentile). All antibodies must be demonstrated on 2 or more occasions separated by at least 12 weeks. Direct assays for beta-2 GP1 antibodies have been reported to be somewhat more specific (but less sensitive) for disease diagnosis in patients with APS.(5) Anticardiolipin and beta-2 GP1 antibodies of the IgA isotype are not part of the laboratory criteria for APS due to lack of specificity.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<15.0 U/mL (negative)

15.0-39.9 U/mL (weakly positive)

40.0-79.9 U/mL (positive)

> or =80.0 U/mL (strongly positive)

Results are expressed in arbitrary units and apply to IgG and IgM values.

Reference values apply to all ages.

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Strongly positive results for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) antibodies (>40 U/mL for IgG and/or IgM) are diagnostic criterion for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Lesser levels of beta-2 GP1 antibodies and antibodies of the IgA isotype may occur in patients with clinical signs of APS, but the results are not considered diagnostic. Beta-2 GP1 antibodies must be detected on 2 or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart to fulfill the laboratory diagnostic criteria for APS.


Detection of beta-2 GP1 antibodies is not affected by anticoagulant treatment.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

The immunoassay for beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) antibodies does not distinguish between autoantibodies and antibodies produced in response to infectious agents or as epiphenomena following thrombosis. For this reason, a single positive test result is not sufficient to meet accepted serologic criteria for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (see Clinical Information).


Comparative studies and interlaboratory proficiency surveys indicate that results of beta-2 GP1 antibody tests can be highly variable and results obtained with different commercial immunoassays may yield substantially different results.(4)

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Caronti B, Calderaro C, Alessandri C, et al: Beta2-glycoprotein 1 (beta2-GP1) mRNA is expressed by several cell types involved in anti-phospholipid syndrome-related tissue damage. Clin Exp Immunol 1999;115:214-219

2. Lozier J, Takahashi N, Putnam F: Complete amino acid sequence of human plasma beta-2-glycoprotein 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984;81:3640-3644

3. Kra-Oz Z, Lorber M, Shoenfeld Y, Scharff Y: Inhibitor(s) of natural anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies. Clin Exp Immunol 1993;93:265-268

4. Wilson WW, Gharavi AE, Koike T, et al: International consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42(7):1309-1311

5. Audrain MA, El-Kouri D, Hamidou MA, et al: Value of autoantibodies to beta(2)-glycoprotein 1 in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002;41:550-553

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Purified beta-2 GPI antigen is bound to the wells of a polystyrene microwell plate under conditions that will preserve the antigen in its native state. Prediluted controls and diluted patient sera are added to separate wells, allowing any beta-2 GPI IgM or IgG antibodies present to bind to the immobilized antigen. Unbound sample is washed away and an enzyme-labeled antihuman IgM conjugate is added to each well. A second incubation allows the enzyme-labeled antihuman IgM or IgG to bind to any patient antibodies that have become attached to the microwells. After washing away any unbound enzyme-labeled antihuman IgM or IgG, the remaining enzyme activity is measured by adding a chromogenic substrate and measuring the intensity of the color that develops. The assay can be evaluated spectrophotometrically by measuring and comparing the color intensity that develops in the patient wells with that of a 5-point calibration curve. Results are reported out semiquantitatively in standard IgM anti-beta-2 GPI units (SMU) and standard IgG anti-beta-2 GPI units (SGU).(Package Inserts: QUANTA Lite beta 2 GP1 IgM ELISA, Inova Diagnostics, February 2015 Revision 13 and QUANTA Lite 2[2] GP1 IgG ELISA, Inova Diagnostics, March 2016 Revision 18)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Saturday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 6 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


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Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86146 x 2

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
B2GMG Beta 2 GP1 Ab, IgM/IgG, S 72488-0
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
GB2GP Beta 2 GP1 Ab IgG, S 44448-9
MB2GP Beta 2 GP1 Ab IgM, S 44449-7

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports