Test Catalog

Test Id : OSG_F

Osmotic Gap, Feces

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Workup of cases of chronic diarrhea

 

Differentiating osmotic from non-osmotic causes of chronic diarrhea. 

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
NA_F Sodium, F No Yes
K_F Potassium, F No Yes
OG_F Osmotic Gap, F No Yes

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

OG_F: Calculation

NA_F, K_F: Indirect Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) Potentiometry

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Osmotic Gap, F

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Fecal

Ordering Guidance

This test is only clinically valid if performed on watery specimens. In the event a formed fecal specimen is submitted, the test will not be performed.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: No barium, laxatives, or enemas may be used for 96 hours prior to start of, or during, collection.

Supplies: Stool containers - 24, 48, 72 Hour Kit (T291)

Collection Container/Tube: Stool container

Specimen Volume: 10 g

Collection Instructions: Collect a very liquid fecal specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

5 g

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Fecal Frozen (preferred) 14 days
Refrigerated 7 days
Ambient 48 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Workup of cases of chronic diarrhea

 

Differentiating osmotic from non-osmotic causes of chronic diarrhea. 

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The concentration of electrolytes in fecal water and their rate of excretion are dependent upon 3 factors:

-Normal daily dietary intake of electrolytes

-Passive transport from serum and other vascular spaces to equilibrate fecal osmotic pressure with vascular osmotic pressure

-Electrolyte transport into fecal water due to exogenous substances and rare toxins (eg, cholera toxin)

 

Fecal osmolality is normally in equilibrium with vascular osmolality, and sodium is the major effector of this equilibrium.(1) Fecal osmolality is normally 2 x (sodium + potassium) unless there are exogenous factors inducing a change in composition, such as the presence of other osmotic agents (magnesium sulfate, saccharides) or drugs inducing secretions, such as phenolphthalein or bisacodyl.

 

Osmotic diarrhea is caused by ingestion of poorly absorbed ions or sugars and can be characterized by the following:

-Stool volume typically decreased by fasting

-Fecal fluid usually has an elevated osmotic gap

-Osmotic agents such as magnesium, sorbitol, or polyethylene glycol may be the cause through the intentional or inadvertent use of laxatives

-Carbohydrate malabsorption due most commonly to lactose intolerance

-Carbohydrate malabsorption can be differentiated from other osmotic causes by a low stool pH (<6)

 

Non-osmotic causes of diarrhea include bile acid malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease, endocrine tumors, and neoplasia.(1) Secretory diarrhea is classified as non-osmotic and is caused by disruption of epithelial electrolyte transport when secretory agents such as anthraquinones, phenolphthalein, bisacodyl, or cholera toxin are present. The fecal fluid usually has elevated electrolytes (primarily sodium and chloride) and a low osmotic gap (<50 mOsm/kg). Infection is a common secretory process; however, it does not typically cause chronic diarrhea (defined as symptoms >4 weeks).

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Osmotic Gap:

-Osmotic gap is calculated as 290 mOsm/kg-(2[Na]+2[K]). Typically, stool osmolality is similar to serum since the gastrointestinal (GI) tract does not secrete water.(1)

-An osmotic gap above 50 mOsm/kg is suggestive of an osmotic component contributing to the symptoms of diarrhea.(1-3)

 

-Magnesium-induced diarrhea should be considered if the osmotic gap is above 75 mOsm/kg and is likely if the magnesium concentration is over 110 mg/dL.(1)

-An osmotic gap of 50 mOsm/kg or less is suggestive of secretory causes of diarrhea.(1-3)

-A highly negative osmotic gap or a fecal sodium concentration greater than plasma or serum sodium concentrations suggests the possibility of either sodium phosphate or sodium sulfate ingestion by the patient.(4)

 

Sodium:

-Sodium is typically found at lower concentrations (mean 30 +/- 5 mmol/L) in patients with osmotic diarrhea caused by magnesium-containing laxatives, while typically at higher concentrations (mean 104 +/- 5 mmol/L) in patients known to be taking secretory laxatives.(5)

 

Sodium and Potassium:

-High sodium and potassium in the absence of an osmotic gap indicate active electrolyte transport in the GI tract that might be induced by agents such as cholera toxin or hypersecretion of vasointestinal peptide.(1)

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Steffer KJ, Santa Ana CA, Cole JA, Fordtran JS: The practical value of comprehensive stool analysis in detecting the cause of idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2012 Sep;41(3):539-560

2. Sweetser S: Evaluating the patient with diarrhea: A case-based approach. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Jun;87 (6):596-602

3. Eherer AJ, Fordtran JS: Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes. Gastroenterology. 1992 Aug;103(2):545-551

4. Fine KD, Ogunji F, Florio R, Porter J, Ana C: Investigation and diagnosis of diarrhea caused by sodium phosphate. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Dec; 43(12):2708-2714

5. Phillips S, Donaldson L, Geisler K, Pera A, Kochar R: Stool composition in factitial diarrhea: a 6-year experience with stool analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Jun 30;123(2):97-100

6. Casprary WF: Diarrhea associated with carbohydrate malabsorption. Clin Gastroenterol. 1986;15:631-655

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Osmotic Gap:

Calculated result=290 mOsm/kg - 2(stool Na [mmol/L] + stool K [mmol/L])

 

Sodium and Potassium:

The Roche cobas c 501 analyzer makes use of the unique properties of certain membrane materials to develop an electrical potential (electromotive force: EMF) for the measurements of ions in solution. The electrode has a selective membrane in contact with both the test solution and internal filling solution. The internal filling solution contains the test ion at a fixed concentration. The membrane EMF is determined by the difference in concentration of the test ion in the test solution and the internal filling solution. The EMF develops according to the Nernst equation for a specific ion in solution.(Package insert: Roche ISE reagent. Roche Diagnostics; V14 02/2018)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday, Thursday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84302-Sodium

84999-Potassium

LOINC® Information

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
OSG_F Osmotic Gap, F 88697-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Result LOINC Value Tooltip

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports